Archiv: United States Constitution


01.06.2020 - 09:36 [ the Hill ]

O’Brien: Trump won’t assume control of National Guard amid protests over George Floyd death

White House national security adviser Robert O’Brien said Sunday that the Trump administration will not assume control of the National Guard amid protests erupting over the death of George Floyd.

“We’re not going to federalize the Guard at this time,” O’Brien told reporters at the White House, according to Reuters.

01.06.2020 - 09:32 [ theAtlantic.com ]

‘Don’t Ever Tell Law Enforcement to Shoot to Kill Your Own People’ – A dispatch from the brink of catastrophe

At least 25 cities across 16 states have imposed curfews as widespread protests continue.

This tense moment calls to mind another. In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, survivors searched for food and supplies, and tried to make it out of the flooded city. The national media fixated on scenes of “looting” and repeated rumors of “snipers,” describing New Orleans as a “city under siege.” President George W. Bush considered invoking the Insurrection Act, which gives the president the power to deploy military troops within the United States.

01.06.2020 - 08:01 [ Donald J. Trump, 45th President of the United States of America / Twitter ]

Crossing State lines to incite violence is a FEDERAL CRIME! Liberal Governors and Mayors must get MUCH tougher or the Federal Government will step in and do what has to be done, and that includes using the unlimited power of our Military and many arrests. Thank you!

(30.05.2020)

01.06.2020 - 06:52 [ whsv.com ]

Trump deems churches ‘essential,’ calls for them to reopen

(22.05.2020)

President Donald Trump on Friday labeled churches and other houses of worship as “essential“ and called on governors nationwide to let them reopen this weekend even though some areas remain under coronavirus lockdown.

The president threatened to “override” governors who defy him, but it was unclear what authority he has to do so.

30.05.2020 - 20:27 [ law.cornell.edu ]

10 U.S. Code § 252. Use of militia and armed forces to enforce Federal authority

Whenever the President considers that unlawful obstructions, combinations, or assemblages, or rebellion against the authority of the United States, make it impracticable to enforce the laws of the United States in any State by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings, he may call into Federal service such of the militia of any State, and use such of the armed forces, as he considers necessary to enforce those laws or to suppress the rebellion.

30.05.2020 - 20:23 [ Wikipedia ]

Posse Comitatus Act

There are a number of situations in which the Act does not apply. These include:

– National Guard units, state defense forces, and naval militias[15] while under the authority of the governor of a state. However, only the National Guard can be federalized under 10 U.S.C. § 12406, which shifts control from the state governor to the President, making them subject to the PCA as well.

– Federal troops used in accordance to the Insurrection Act, as was the case with the 1st Marine Division and 7th Infantry Division being sent to curtail the 1992 Los Angeles riots.

30.05.2020 - 20:22 [ Washington Post ]

Trump, Pentagon offer active-duty military forces and intelligence to help quell Minnesota unrest

Gov. Tim Walz (D.) acknowledged the offer as he announced that he was mobilizing the entire Minnesota National Guard. He did so after several nights of rioting in response to the death of George Floyd, a black man who was killed in police custody this week in Minneapolis while handcuffed and on video.

Walz downplayed the significance of the Pentagon’s offer to send U.S. armed forces, saying that “this has happened before” where groups from the 82nd Airborne Division and other parts of the Army are put “on readiness.”

“They’re not talking about mobilizing the entire United States Army,” Walz said. “We’re probably talking about in the neighborhood of several hundred” soldiers.

30.05.2020 - 13:05 [ CNN / Youtube ]

Violent George Floyd protests at CNN Center unfold live on TV

CNN’s Nick Valencia reports live from inside the CNN Center in Atlanta where demonstrations over the killing of George Floyd have turned violent.

29.05.2020 - 13:44 [ CNN ]

Minnesota governor apologizes for arrest of CNN team

CNN president Jeff Zucker spoke with the governor of Minnesota, Tim Walz on Friday morning, following the arrest of CNN’s team in Minneapolis,

Walz said he „deeply apologizes“ for what happened and is working to have the CNN team released immediately.

29.05.2020 - 13:13 [ CNN ]

A CNN crew has been arrested while covering Minneapolis protests

A CNN crew has been arrested while covering Minneapolis protests live on the air Friday morning.
Among those arrested was correspondent Omar Jimenez as he gave a report on CNN’s New Day shortly after 5 a.m. CT (6 a.m. ET).

28.05.2020 - 22:33 [ Evan Greer / Twitter ]

Here’s what’s happening: late last night @SpeakerPelosi attempted to ram through a reauthorization of #FISA and #PatriotAct surveillance authorities. But she had to cancel the vote at the last minute when it became clear she didn’t have even close to enough votes to pass it.

She’s trying to blame that on Trump tweeting about it, but the reality is that the vote was going to fail anyway because the entire Congressional Progressive Caucus (nearly 100 member of the House) came out against the bill after Pelosi let @RepAdamSchiff
gut a privacy amendment

Now @SpeakerPelosi
is trying to do an end-run around her own party and is going to attempt to sneak the reauthorization through by using an obscure congressional mechanism to reconcile a previous version of the bill the House passed with the version the Senate passed.

28.05.2020 - 22:29 [ Donald J. Trump, 45th President of the United States of America / Twitter ]

Thank you to our GREAT Republican Congressmen & Congresswomen on your incredibly important blockage last night of a FISA Bill that would just perpetuate the abuse that produced the Greatest Political Crime In the History of the U.S., the Russian Witch-Hunt. Fantastic Job!

28.05.2020 - 22:26 [ ]

The House just ditched a bill that would renew and expand the FBI’s surveillance powers after Trump threatened to veto it

The House of Representatives abandoned a plan to pass a reauthorization of the Patriot Act Thursday after President Donald Trump tweeted that he would veto the bill if it passes.

28.05.2020 - 22:18 [ CommonDreams.org ]

‚Just Let the Patriot Act Die You Cowards‘: House Lawmakers Urged to Vote Down Flawed Domestic Spy Bill

(27.05.2020)

As Common Dreams reported earlier, House Intelligence Committee Chair Rep. Adam Schiff was a target of specific ire for his role in sabotaging the amendment which sought to strengthen the bill’s privacy protections and judicial oversight. As Gizmodo’s Dell Cameron remarked after the day’s developments, „Although it’s really been something of a mass delusion for a while, the idea that Democrats are somehow better than Republicans on the Fourth Amendment is, as of this week, nothing short of a joke.“

The fact that the GOP-controlled Senate has managed to pass more progressive privacy reforms than the Democratic majority in the House, which has introduced precisely none, should not go unnoticed,“ Cameron added.

27.05.2020 - 21:07 [ CNN ]

Trump tweet throws House vote on government surveillance powers into doubt

The request to shelve the vote was the latest hurdle for legislation reauthorizing authorities from the 2001 Patriot Act that’s been squeezed both by FISA opponents who have pushed for more civil liberties protections and by the President and his allies furious over the role of the FISA court in the Russia investigation and the misconduct with warrants obtained on former Trump adviser Carter Page.

„I hope all Republican House Members vote NO on FISA until such time as our Country is able to determine how and why the greatest political, criminal, and subversive scandal in USA history took place!“ Trump tweeted on Tuesday evening.

27.05.2020 - 20:27 [ Warren Davidson, U.S. Congressman serving Ohio's 8th District. Constitutionalist and former Army Ranger / Twitter ]

Intel & war hawks fight to keep mass surveillance of American citizens in place, and keep America in more wars in more places. Now they want to stop reforms from becoming law so they can preserve the broken status quo. We need @realDonaldTrump to support these reforms & more.

27.05.2020 - 20:01 [ CBS News ]

House to vote on reauthorizing expired surveillance powers

The House is expected to vote on a bill reauthorizing expired national security surveillance authorities on Wednesday afternoon in a vote by proxy, a controversial rule change which allows members to vote on behalf of their absent colleagues. House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy has called on Speaker Nancy Pelosi to pull the bill reauthorizing authorities under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, arguing that voting by proxy is unconstitutional.

25.05.2020 - 21:10 [ the Hill ]

Is a virtual Congress good enough for government work?

(17.05.2020)

The House Democrats’ plan to go virtual for committees and floor proceedings met fierce Republican insistence that Congress operate together in the Capitol when making important legislative decisions.

The Rules Committee spent more than six hours hearing from colleagues and considering over 30 amendments to a proposed new rule allowing the House to conduct floor votes through proxies designated by absent members, and to conduct virtual committee hearings and votes without proxies.

25.05.2020 - 21:03 [ the Hill ]

House members race to prepare for first-ever remote votes

Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) on Wednesday officially invoked a 45-day period for remote voting and committee work, which can be renewed as necessary as a way to reduce the risk of coronavirus contagion for lawmakers and anyone they come into contact with while the pandemic persists.

23.05.2020 - 07:45 [ Justin Amash, Abgeordneter im US Repräsentantenhaus / Twitter ]

Governor Whitmer cannot legitimately invoke emergency powers on an ongoing basis when the legislature is available to address COVID-19. It’s not an “emergency” under such circumstances. President Trump tried this nonsense with the wall and arms sales. The same principle applies.

17.05.2020 - 06:47 [ the Hill ]

Legal challenges to stay-at-home orders gain momentum

Opponents of stay-at-home orders got a major boost this week when the Wisconsin Supreme Court invalidated the state’s coronavirus health order, a decision that’s already generating momentum behind similar challenges across the country.

16.05.2020 - 14:18 [ New York Times ]

With Move to Remote Voting, House Alters What It Means for Congress to Meet

Some Republicans privately support a remote House, but sided with their leaders on Friday and voted against it anyway. The vast majority, though, have resisted the changes, calling Democrats’ decision to move ahead over their objections “the most significant power grab in the history of Congress.”

On the House floor on Friday, an unmasked Representative Jim Jordan, Republican of Ohio, accused Democrats of “suspending the Constitution,” and setting up a scheme where just 22 members “with 10 proxies in their back pocket could do the business of 300 million great people in this country.”

15.05.2020 - 13:26 [ USA TODAY Politics / Twitter ]

The decrease in social distancing isn’t just in states that have ended stay-at-home orders. It’s also in states where restrictions remain.

15.05.2020 - 13:07 [ mrrobert0124, living in Hawaii / Twitter ]

Lockdown for ANOTHER MONTH??? Who the hell voted for that Jackass IGE??? I hope the Hawaii Supreme Court sets us free like they did in Wisconsin! #endthelockdown #frickinggovernor #gestapostate

15.05.2020 - 12:47 [ Adriana Diaz / Twitter ]

Our story tonight. Wisconsin’s Supreme Court brings an end to statewide stay at home order…and there are celebrations in places that have been off limits for weeks: bars.

15.05.2020 - 12:44 [ Chris Wick / Twitter ]

Wisconsin’s supreme court has ruled that the governor’s ordered lockdown of the state is unconstitutional. Bars and restaurants threw their doors open to willing customers and the celebration was like the end of prohibition.

14.05.2020 - 06:07 [ CNN ]

Wisconsin Supreme Court strikes down state’s stay-at-home order

The Wisconsin Supreme Court has overturned the state’s stay-at-home order, ruling it „unlawful“ and „unenforceable“ in a high-profile win for the state’s Republican-led Legislature.

In a 4-3 decision Wednesday, the court ruled that Democratic Gov. Tony Evers‘ administration overstepped its authority when the state Department of Health Services extended the order to May 26.

13.05.2020 - 09:22 [ FoxWilmington.com ]

Rand Paul, citing Flynn case, proposes FISA amendment to curb surveillance of Americans

Sen. Rand Paul on Tuesday introduced an amendment to the House-passed Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act to protect Americans’ privacy, citing the case against former national security adviser Michael Flynn as an example of “abuse” and saying it “should never be allowed to happen again.”

Paul, R-Ky., who is an outspoken advocate for privacy reforms, proposed an amendment to the USA FREEDOM Reauthorization Act of 2020 – which passed the House on a bipartisan basis earlier this year – to protect Americans’ privacy, ensure due process and “reassert the Fourth Amendment.”

13.05.2020 - 09:08 [ The Hill / Youtube ]

POWERFUL CONFRONTATION: Rand Paul and Anthony Fauci’s contentious Coronavirus exchange

„As much as I respect you, Dr. Fauci, I don’t think you’re the end all. I don’t think you’re the one person that gets to make a decision,“ Paul said. „We can listen to your advice, but there are people on the other side saying there’s not going to be a surge, that we can safely reopen the economy, and the facts will bear this out.“

13.05.2020 - 09:06 [ CNN ]

Sen. Rand Paul tells Dr. Fauci he isn’t the ‚end all‘

Dr. Anthony Fauci, the top US infectious diseases expert, defended his guidance to the federal government over how to respond to the Covid-19 outbreak, telling Sen. Rand Paul (R-KY) that „I have never made myself out to be the ‚end-all'“ and warning against „cavalier“ thinking that children could be immune to the disease’s effects.

08.05.2020 - 19:51 [ Washington Post ]

Five Republican governors: Our states stayed open in the covid-19 pandemic. Here’s why our approach worked.

Mark Gordon is governor of Wyoming. Pete Ricketts is governor of Nebraska. Asa Hutchinson is governor of Arkansas. Kim Reynolds is governor of Iowa. Mike Parson is governor of Missouri. They are all Republicans.

08.05.2020 - 16:55 [ Slate.com ]

How Modern Tyrants Use Terror Management to Consolidate Power – Be ready for an American Reichstag fire when it comes.

(04.04.2017)

The sudden disaster that requires the end of checks and balances, the dissolution of opposition parties, the suspension of freedom of expression, the right to a fair trial, and so on—this is the oldest trick in the Hitlerian book. Do not fall for it. Modern tyrants are terror managers. Do not allow your shock to be turned against your freedom. When the terrorist attack comes, remember that aspiring tyrants exploit such events in order to change regimes and to consolidate power.

06.05.2020 - 14:47 [ LA Times ]

Photos of raucous protests around the state | Demonstrators demand stay-at-home order be lifted

Raucous protests erupted around California this week as demonstrators demanded that Gov. Gavin Newson’s stay-at-home order be lifted.

03.05.2020 - 10:14 [ LA Times ]

Facing protests, Newsom says easing stay-at-home rules could be ‘days’ away

Gov. Gavin Newsom on Friday faced the most intense pressure yet to lift restrictions on daily life, with a series of raucous protests around the state, a legal tussle with Orange County over closing its beaches and a rural Northern California county that defied his stay-at-home order and opened up for business.

03.05.2020 - 10:10 [ ABC News ]

Remote Northern California county defies stay-at-home order

Modoc County moved Friday to reopen hair salons, churches, restaurants and the county’s only movie theater. There haven’t been any confirmed cases of COVID-19 among 9,000 residents, but the reopening came with strict social distancing limits.

03.05.2020 - 10:05 [ the Hill ]

Battle erupts in California over when to open

The debate over how soon to ease restrictions and start opening California has pitted local and state officials against one another in one of the states hit hardest by the coronavirus outbreak. It comes as other states such as Georgia and Texas are moving faster to open up their economies.

02.05.2020 - 12:33 [ UpperMichigansSource.com ]

Michigan House and Senate will not extend emergency declaration

The step came as hundreds of conservative activists, including some who were openly carrying rifles, returned to the Capitol to denounce her stay-at-home order.

Whitmer wanted lawmakers to extend her emergency declaration by 28 days. It expires late Thursday.

02.05.2020 - 12:27 [ Mr. Jones / Twitter ]

Wow…protestors make it INTO the Michigan Statehouse Think little miss Hitler wanna-be gets the message yet?

02.05.2020 - 12:23 [ BlackChristianNews.com ]

Members of the Michigan Liberty Militia stand guard with weapons and tactical gear in an angry protest before the Michigan statehouse

The “American Patriot Rally” started on the statehouse steps, where members of the Michigan Liberty Militia stood guard with weapons and tactical gear, their faces partially covered. They later moved inside the Capitol along with several hundred protesters, who demanded to be let onto the House floor, which is prohibited. Some protesters with guns — which are allowed in the statehouse — went to the Senate gallery, where a senator said some armed men shouted at her, and some senators wore bulletproof vests.

02.05.2020 - 12:22 [ ORF.at ]

Kalifornien: Tausende demonstrieren für Lockerungen

Es gab gestern Proteste in mindestens elf Städten des US-Bundesstaats, darunter die Hauptstadt Sacramento sowie San Francisco, Los Angeles und San Diego. Die Proteste richteten sich auch gegen die Entscheidung von Gouverneur Gavin Newsom, einige Strände zu schließen.

Die meisten Demonstrierenden, die in Sprechchören „Öffnet Kalifornien“ und „Freiheit“ riefen, trugen keine Schutzmasken und hielten sich nicht an die Abstandsregeln.

02.05.2020 - 12:20 [ ABC7 News Bay Area / Youtube ]

Reopen California protests at state capitol against coronavirus lockdown — WATCH LIVE

Protesters frustrated with ongoing shelter-in-place restrictions in California due to the novel coronavirus pandemic are gathering at the state capitol in Sacramento.

02.05.2020 - 12:18 [ Fox News / Youtube ]

Tensions escalate in California: Cities file lawsuits against Gov. Newsom

People protest state’s stay-at-home orders; William La Jeunesse reports.

01.05.2020 - 10:18 [ LA Times ]

This California county might defy the state and lift stay-at-home order Friday

Modoc County, in the northeastern corner of California, is one of the least-populated counties in the state, with fewer than 9,000 residents. It plans to allow all businesses, schools and churches to reopen starting Friday, as long as people stay six feet apart, according to a statement signed by the county health officer, sheriff-coroner, chair of the Board of Supervisors, and other county officials.

01.05.2020 - 10:14 [ the Hill ]

California county to defy statewide stay-at-home order, allow businesses to reopen

Modoc County, Calif. — sparsely populated and located in the northeast corner of the state — is planning on reopening schools, hair salons, churches, restaurants and its lone movie theater on Friday, in direct defiance of Gov. Gavin Newsom’s (D) statewide stay-at-home order.

01.05.2020 - 10:13 [ LA Times ]

Huntington Beach mounts legal fight against Newsom closure of O.C. beaches

The Huntington Beach City Council voted Thursday night during an emergency session to seek an injunction against Gov. Gavin Newsom’s order to close Orange County beaches.

30.04.2020 - 17:27 [ ScientificAmerican.com ]

Will Americans Be Willing to Install COVID-19 Tracking Apps?

Citing an infringement of constitutional rights and freedoms, leaders in the United States have so far been hesitant to adopt such technological approaches, but that may be about to change.

30.04.2020 - 07:23 [ Business Insider ]

‚GIVE PEOPLE BACK THEIR GODDAMN FREEDOM‘: Elon Musk bashes US shelter-in-place orders as ‚fascist,‘ says they’re ‚forcibly imprisoning‘ people in their homes

„If somebody wants to stay in their house, that’s great and they should be able to,“ he said. „But to say they cannot leave their house and that they will be arrested if they do: that’s fascist. That is not democratic; this is not freedom. Give people back their goddamn freedom.“

30.04.2020 - 07:20 [ @elwalvador / Twitter ]

Elon Musk’s „What the fuck“ rant on shelter in place from the Tesla conference call:

30.04.2020 - 07:07 [ Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Baumann, Vorsitzender der Bergischen Juristengesellschaft / Twitter ]

Elon Musk: „Das ist faschistisch“

30.04.2020 - 06:51 [ the Verge ]

Elon Musk says shelter-in-place orders during COVID-19 are ‘fascist’

“The expansion of shelter-in-place, or as we call it, forcibly imprisoning people in their homes, against all their constitutional rights, is, in my opinion, breaking people’s freedoms in ways that are horrible and wrong, and not why people came to America and built this country,” Musk said. “What the fuck!”

27.04.2020 - 22:50 [ the Hill ]

Barr tells prosecutors to watch for pandemic restrictions that violate Constitution

In a two-page memorandum to the country’s 93 U.S. attorneys, Barr cautioned that some state and local directives could be infringing on protected religious, speech and economic rights.

“If a state or local ordinance crosses the line from an appropriate exercise of authority to stop the spread of COVID-19 into an overbearing infringement of constitutional and statutory protections, the Department of Justice may have an obligation to address that overreach in federal court,” Barr wrote.

27.04.2020 - 22:49 [ NPR.org ]

Court Rules Detroit Students Have Constitutional Right To An Education

For decades, civil rights lawyers have tried to help students and families in underfunded schools by arguing that the U.S. Constitution guarantees children at least a basic education. Federal courts have consistently disagreed. Until now.

The ability to read and write is „essential“ for a citizen to participate in American democracy, the 6th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled on Thursday.

26.04.2020 - 13:13 [ the Hill ]

Several states starting to reopen this weekend

In Tennessee, Gov. Bill Lee (R ) said on Monday that “the vast majority of businesses” will be allowed to reopen when the state’s stay-at-home order expires on April 30, and as of Friday state parks and dine-in restaurants were allowed to open with reduced capacity. Tennessee was one of the last states to issue a stay-at-home order.

20.04.2020 - 19:09 [ The Hill / Youtube ]

Krystal and Saagar: MSNBC guest’s OUTRAGEOUS smear of COVID protestors as ‚Fox News death cult‘

Krystal and Saagar talk about an MSNBC guest who called protestors advocating to re-open the government apart of a, ‚Fox News death cult.‘

20.04.2020 - 18:48 [ the Hill ]

Governors headed for messy fight over coronavirus restrictions

Governors are heading for a clash with their own citizens and local officials as they weigh how and when to reopen the country’s economy amid the coronavirus pandemic.

17.04.2020 - 16:27 [ NBC News ]

The ‚total authority‘ president punts to state governors

President Trump has moved from stating that he alone can fix it to telling America’s governors that they need to “call your own shots” when it comes to reopening their economies during the nation’s worst health crisis in 100 years.

That’s our top takeaway from Trump’s announcement Thursday on federal guidelines to reopen the country “that put the onus on governors of making decisions about their states‘ economies,” per NBC News.

17.04.2020 - 11:26 [ Justin Amash, Abgeordneter im US Repräsentantenhaus / Twitter ]

Without one chamber participating in this improper scheme, this action would be unconstitutional. The president has no general, unilateral power to adjourn Congress.

He may do so only in the limited “Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment.”

17.04.2020 - 11:24 [ the Hill ]

Trump faces roadblocks with threat to adjourn Congress

The president’s power to adjourn Congress, enshrined in Article II of the Constitution, has never been used before by a president, setting an all-but-guaranteed court fight if Trump moved forward.

But legal experts say Trump doesn’t have the authority to adjourn Congress without cooperation from at least one chamber, and Senate Republicans poured cold water on the idea.

17.04.2020 - 10:37 [ New York Times ]

Trump Says States Can Start Reopening While Acknowledging the Decision Is Theirs

The guidelines released by the president effectively mean that any restoration of American society will take place on a patchwork basis.

16.04.2020 - 19:08 [ the Hill ]

Libertarians view Amash as potential 2020 game changer for party

Former South Carolina Gov. Mark Sanford (R), who briefly ran in the 2020 GOP primary against Trump, said he believes Amash would be a viable candidate who could pull voters from the left and the right.

„You look at the fastest growth out there in the political field, it’s on the independent side, it’s not with a traditional Republican or Democrat,” Sanford said.

16.04.2020 - 13:06 [ Süddeutsche.de ]

Trump droht dem Kongress mit einer Zwangspause

Der US-Präsident verurteilte die bisherige Praxis, den Kongressbetrieb durch Pro-Forma-Sitzungen, bei denen keine Abgeordnete oder Senatoren anwesend seien, aufrechtzuerhalten. Dies sei eine „Vernachlässigung der Pflichten, die sich das amerikanische Volk in dieser Krise nicht leisten kann“, sagte Trump. Er sprach von „Betrug“.

16.04.2020 - 12:57 [ USconstitution.net ]

The United States Constitution

Article II – The Executive Branch:

(…)

Section 3 – State of the Union, Convening Congress:

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper;

16.04.2020 - 12:54 [ theHill.com ]

Trump threatens to adjourn both chambers of Congress

Lawmakers in both chambers are not expected to return to the Capitol until May 4 but both the House and Senate have been conducting pro forma sessions in the meantime. Those sessions prevent Trump from making recess appointments.

„The current practice of leaving town while conducting phony pro forma sessions is a dereliction of duty that the American people can not afford during this crisis,“ he said. „It is a scam, what they do. It’s a scam. And everybody knows it and it’s been that way for a long time.“