Archiv: magnetic reconnection / magnetospheres („flux transfer events“ / magnetic ropes)


15.07.2021 - 09:24 [ PRI.org ]

Scientists link Earth’s magnetic reversals to changes in planet’s life and climate

(April 19, 2021)

The researchers examined the rings of the tree to look for changes in the amount of carbon-14 over a period of years, Gramling explains. Carbon-14 is useful not only for dating things, but because the interaction of cosmic rays with molecules in the atmosphere produces a lot of it. And when the Earth has a weakened magnetic field, more cosmic rays hit the planet.

The scientists indeed found a large spike in carbon-14 in the tree, which they could then compare with the rock record that indicated a magnetic reversal. (…)

In addition, there is the documented rise in cave art right about 41,000-42,000 years ago, Gramling points out.

15.07.2021 - 09:03 [ ScienceAlert.com ]

Earth’s Magnetic Field Could Be Changing Much Faster Than We Ever Realised

(8 JULY 2020)

Past palaeomagnetic studies have shown that the magnetic field could change direction at up to 1 degree a year, but the latest study suggests that movements of up to 10 degrees annually are possible.

15.07.2021 - 08:54 [ Forbes.com ]

Is Earth’s Magnetic Shield Eroding?

(29.3.2018)

The strength of Earth’s main magnetic field is currently about 29.5 microteslas, down 5 microteslas, or 14 percent from its strength three centuries ago.

We know this. There is no question of this.

15.07.2021 - 08:30 [ University of Maryland / ScienceDaily.com ]

Space mission first to observe key interaction between magnetic fields of Earth and sun

Date: May 12, 2016

Source: University of Maryland

Summary: Physicists have now provided the first major results of NASA’s Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, including an unprecedented look at the interaction between the magnetic fields of Earth and the sun. The article describes the first direct and detailed observation of a phenomenon known as magnetic reconnection, which occurs when two opposing magnetic field lines break and reconnect with each other, releasing massive amounts of energy.

21.02.2021 - 13:05 [ ScienceNews.org ]

50 years ago, scientists named Earth’s magnetic field as a suspect in extinctions

Excerpt from the November 21, 1970 issue of Science News

21.02.2021 - 12:40 [ Science Magazine ]

A global environmental crisis 42,000 years ago

(19.02.2021)

We find that geomagnetic field minima ~42 ka, in combination with Grand Solar Minima, caused substantial changes in atmospheric ozone concentration and circulation, driving synchronous global climate shifts that caused major environmental changes, extinction events, and transformations in the archaeological record.

21.02.2021 - 12:35 [ CNN ]

Reversal of Earth’s magnetic poles may have triggered Neanderthal extinction — and it could happen again

(19.02.2021)

Some 42,000 years ago, in an event known as the Laschamp Excursion, the poles did just that for around 800 years, before swapping back — but scientists were unsure exactly how or if it impacted the world.

Now, a team of researchers from Sydney’s University of New South Wales and the South Australian Museum say the flip, along with changing solar winds, could have triggered an array of dramatic climate shifts leading to environmental change and mass extinctions.

21.02.2021 - 03:32 [ NASA.gov ]

NASA Missions Make Unprecedented Map of Sun’s Magnetic Field

They’ll have a chance to take that step forward soon: A re-flight of the mission was just greenlit by NASA. Though the launch date isn’t yet set, the team plans to use the same instrument but with a new technique to measure a much broader swath of the Sun.

“Instead of just measuring the magnetic fields along the very narrow strip, we want to scan it across the target and make a two-dimensional map,” McKenzie said.

15.09.2020 - 21:04 [ NASA ]

NASA, NOAA to Discuss Solar Cycle Prediction During Media Teleconference

Tuesday, 9/15/2020

NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will discuss predictions for the upcoming solar cycle during a media teleconference at 1 p.m. EDT Tuesday, Sept. 15. Tracking the solar cycle is a key part of better understanding the Sun and mitigating its impacts on human technology and infrastructure.

During the teleconference, experts on the Solar Cycle 25 Prediction Panel will discuss recent updates in solar cycle progress, and the forecast for the upcoming cycle, Solar Cycle 25.

15.09.2020 - 18:01 [ Europäische Weltraumagentur / European Space Agency - ESA.int ]

Secrets for Solar Orbiter to solve

(04.09.2020)

The Sun’s magnetic field is responsible for all the solar activity we see; it drives the 11-year ebb and flow in the number of sunspots, and dominates the behaviour of the solar atmosphere. Furthermore, this magnetic field surrounds the entire solar system, creating a giant bubble known as the heliosphere that is filled with electrified gas known as plasma. Disturbances in this plasma can affect the planets, creating aurorae and interfering with the behaviour of technology. Yet the details of the magnetic field’s initial generation inside the Sun are not yet understood.

09.08.2020 - 08:07 [ journals.plos.org ]

The Earth’s magnetic field in Jerusalem during the Babylonian destruction: A unique reference for field behavior and an anchor for archaeomagnetic dating

Archaeomagnetism, the application of paleomagnetic methods to archaeological materials, is interdisciplinary not only in its methods but also in its impact. Well-dated archaeological materials are a critical data source for geomagnetic secular variation models [1–6], which are used to explore the dynamic structure of Earth’s core [7, 8], the rates of cosmogenic isotope production in the atmosphere [9–11] and the possible effect of geomagnetism on climate [11–13]. Precise documentation of the ancient field also helps contextualize geomagnetic observations from the modern era, such as the evolution of the South Atlantic Anomaly [14, 15] and the ongoing decline in the field’s intensity [16–18].

09.08.2020 - 08:05 [ Haaretz ]

Ruins of Ancient Jerusalem Help Unravel Enigmas of Earth’s Magnetic Field

Albert Einstein once called the behavior of the magnetic field one of the great mysteries of physics, but understanding and possibly predicting its changes has taken on a new urgency for scientists. The field has lost around 10 percent of its strength since measurements began less than 200 years ago, leading some researchers to question whether we are on the way to a flip in polarity, which would be preceded by a loss of our precious shield against cosmic radiation.

28.03.2020 - 15:18 [ CNN ]

Scientists found a secret in old Voyager 2 data. This is why we need to revisit Uranus and Neptune

„The way in which the sun’s solar wind interacts with Uranus is unlike any planet we’ve ever explored,“ DiBraccio said. „We are left with questions regarding to what degree the solar wind affects dynamics at Uranus such as transporting atmospheric particles, transferring energy and even changing the planet’s climate over time.“

22.01.2020 - 22:09 [ Geophysical Research Letters 35(16) / researchgate.net ]

Magnetic effect on CO 2 solubility in seawater: A possible link between geomagnetic field variations and climate

(August 2008)

Correlations between geomagnetic-field and climate parameters have been suggested repeatedly, but possible links are controversially discussed. Here we test if weak (Earth-strength) magnetic fields can affect climatically relevant properties of seawater. We found the solubility of air in seawater to be by 15% lower under reduced magneticfield (20 mT) compared to normal field conditions (50 mT). The magnetic-field effect on CO2 solubility is twice as large, from which we surmise that geomagnetic field variations modulate the carbon exchange between atmosphere and ocean. A 1% reduction in magnetic dipole moment may release up to ten times more CO2 from the surface ocean than is emitted by subaerial volcanism.

02.01.2020 - 14:36 [ National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]

Solar Activity Forecast for Next Decade Favorable for Exploration

(12.06.2019)

The Sun’s activity rises and falls in an 11-year cycle. The forecast for the next solar cycle says it will be the weakest of the last 200 years. The maximum of this next cycle – measured in terms of sunspot number, a standard measure of solar activity level – could be 30 to 50% lower than the most recent one.

02.01.2020 - 13:40 [ Geophysical Research Letters 35(16) / researchgate.net ]

Magnetic effect on CO 2 solubility in seawater: A possible link between geomagnetic field variations and climate

(August 2008)

Correlations between geomagnetic-field and climate parameters have been suggested repeatedly, but possible links are controversially discussed. Here we test if weak (Earth-strength) magnetic fields can affect climatically relevant properties of seawater. We found the solubility of air in seawater to be by 15% lower under reduced magneticfield (20 mT) compared to normal field conditions (50 mT). The magnetic-field effect on CO2 solubility is twice as large, from which we surmise that geomagnetic field variations modulate the carbon exchange between atmosphere and ocean. A 1% reduction in magnetic dipole moment may release up to ten times more CO2 from the surface ocean than is emitted by subaerial volcanism.

02.01.2020 - 13:40 [ Ludwig Maximilian Universität München ]

Wenn ein Treibhausgas baden geht: Wie das Erdmagnetfeld unser Klima beeinflusst

(6. Oktober 2008)

Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass selbst kleine Veränderungen des Magnetfelds die Löslichkeit von Gasen im Wasser verändern. „Wenn das Magnetfeld schwächer war, löste sich 15 Prozent weniger Luft im Wasser als bei einem stärkeren Magnetfeld“, erläutert Winklhofer. „Für Kohlendioxid war der beobachtete Effekt sogar doppelt so stark.“

02.01.2020 - 13:39 [ Harvard.edu ]

Magnetic Flux Ropes in the Martian Atmosphere: Global Characteristics

(März 2004)

We report observations of magnetic fields amplitude, which consist of a series of individual spikes in the Martian atmosphere. A minimum variance analysis shows that these spikes form twisted cylindrical filaments. These small diameter magnetic filaments are commonly called magnetic flux ropes. We examine the global characteristics of magnetic flux ropes, which are observed on 5% of the elliptical orbits of Mars Global Surveyor.

02.01.2020 - 13:33 [ European Geosciences Union / Copernikus Gesellschaft ]

MESSENGER Observations of Magnetic Flux Ropes in Mercury’s Plasma Sheet

(2014)

A superposed epoch analysis demonstrates that the magnetic structure of the flux ropes issimilar to what is observed at Earth, but the timescales are 40 times faster at Mercury.

02.01.2020 - 13:24 [ University College London ]

Magnetic Rope observed for the first time between Saturn and the Sun

(06.07.2016)

The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since 2004, and after many years analyzing the data collected, Cassini has observed the first FTE at Saturn.

02.01.2020 - 13:20 [ ScienceMag.org ]

Magnetic Reconnection in the Near Venusian Magnetotail

(04.05.2012)

Observations with the Venus Express magnetometer and low-energy particle detector revealed magnetic field and plasma behavior in the near-Venus wake that is symptomatic of magnetic reconnection, a process that occurs in Earth’s magnetotail but is not expected in the magnetotail of a nonmagnetized planet such as Venus.

02.01.2020 - 13:18 [ National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]

Magnetic Portals Connect Earth to the Sun

(30.10.2008)

„It’s called a flux transfer event or ‚FTE,'“ says space physicist David Sibeck of the Goddard Space Flight Center. „Ten years ago I was pretty sure they didn’t exist, but now the evidence is incontrovertible.“

Indeed, today Sibeck is telling an international assembly of space physicists at the 2008 Plasma Workshop in Huntsville, Alabama, that FTEs are not just common, but possibly twice as common as anyone had ever imagined.

02.01.2020 - 13:08 [ National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]

Close Comet Flyby Threw Mars’ Magnetic Field Into Chaos

(09.03.2016)

And like a solar storm, the comet’s close passage likely fueled a temporary surge in the amount of gas escaping from Mars’ upper atmosphere. Over time, those storms took their toll on the atmosphere.

“With MAVEN, we’re trying to understand how the sun and solar wind interact with Mars,” said Bruce Jakosky, MAVEN’s principal investigator from the University of Colorado’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics in Boulder. “By looking at how the magnetospheres of the comet and of Mars interact with each other, we’re getting a better understanding of the detailed processes that control each one.”

02.01.2020 - 13:07 [ Alexander Ershkovich / Researchgate.net ]

On the Origin of the Magnetic Field in Type-1 Comet Tails

(4. Juni 1976)

If the magnetic field in a type I comet tail were of internal origin, it would decrease with distance along the tail axis, and the comet tail would increase in cross section. The tail of Comet Arend-Roland (1957 III) was shown not to expand with distance from the nucleus, whence it is concluded that the magnetic field in the tail is of external origin. The magnetic field in type I comet tails, estimated from different considerations, turns out to be of the order of the interplanetary field, so that one may suppose that it results from the captured solar-wind magnetic field.

Recently, Mendis and Alfvén (1974) suggested that substantial magnetic fields, up to 100-1000y, could sometimes be generated within the coma. This means that the magnetic field in the comet tail may result from processes analogous to those producing the Earth’s magnetotail.

02.01.2020 - 10:23 [ American Geophysical Union / Youtube ]

Press Conference: Postcards from the edge of space: New images, new phenomena, and new insights

Tuesday, 10 December, 2:30 p.m. │ Presentations SA11A-01, SM51G-3219

In this briefing, scientists will present new images from Earth’s ionosphere, bringing color to processes that have widespread implications for the part of space closest to home. This collection of photos will span the first images ever captured by NASA’s ICON spacecraft — just launched in October 2019 — and the first science discoveries from NASA’s GOLD mission, along with observations of a never-before-studied type of aurora.

Participants:

Jennifer Briggs, Pepperdine University, Malibu, California, United States;

Richard Eastes, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, United States;

Thomas Immel, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States.

02.01.2020 - 10:12 [ businessinsider.com ]

A mysterious crunch in Earth’s magnetic field created a new type of aurora borealis. A NASA intern discovered it.

(26.12.2019)

A NASA intern discovered a new type of aurora in 3-year-old video footage of the Arctic sky.

22.12.2019 - 20:07 [ CNN ]

NASA’s new discovery on the sun

Astronomers witnessed an explosion unlike anything seen before that can help scientists better understand the solar atmosphere.

01.11.2019 - 06:52 [ Geophysical Research Letters 35(16) / researchgate.net ]

Magnetic effect on CO 2 solubility in seawater: A possible link between geomagnetic field variations and climate

(August 2008)

Correlations between geomagnetic-field and climate parameters have been suggested repeatedly, but possible links are controversially discussed. Here we test if weak (Earth-strength) magnetic fields can affect climatically relevant properties of seawater. We found the solubility of air in seawater to be by 15% lower under reduced magneticfield (20 mT) compared to normal field conditions (50 mT). The magnetic-field effect on CO2 solubility is twice as large, from which we surmise that geomagnetic field variations modulate the carbon exchange between atmosphere and ocean. A 1% reduction in magnetic dipole moment may release up to ten times more CO2 from the surface ocean than is emitted by subaerial volcanism.

25.09.2019 - 19:42 [ Geophysical Research Letters 35(16) / researchgate.net ]

Magnetic effect on CO 2 solubility in seawater: A possible link between geomagnetic field variations and climate

(August 2008)

Correlations between geomagnetic-field and climate parameters have been suggested repeatedly, but possible links are controversially discussed. Here we test if weak (Earth-strength) magnetic fields can affect climatically relevant properties of seawater. We found the solubility of air in seawater to be by 15% lower under reduced magneticfield (20 mT) compared to normal field conditions (50 mT). The magnetic-field effect on CO2 solubility is twice as large, from which we surmise that geomagnetic field variations modulate the carbon exchange between atmosphere and ocean. A 1% reduction in magnetic dipole moment may release up to ten times more CO2 from the surface ocean than is emitted by subaerial volcanism.

25.09.2019 - 19:37 [ Ludwig Maximilian Universität München ]

Wenn ein Treibhausgas baden geht: Wie das Erdmagnetfeld unser Klima beeinflusst

(6. Oktober 2008)

Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass selbst kleine Veränderungen des Magnetfelds die Löslichkeit von Gasen im Wasser verändern. „Wenn das Magnetfeld schwächer war, löste sich 15 Prozent weniger Luft im Wasser als bei einem stärkeren Magnetfeld“, erläutert Winklhofer. „Für Kohlendioxid war der beobachtete Effekt sogar doppelt so stark.“

11.08.2019 - 21:38 [ Nils-Axel Mörner / suanet.ac.tz ]

Solar Wind, Earth’s Rotation and Changes in Terrestrial Climate

(08.03.2013)

Another effect of the interaction between the Solar Wind and the Earth’s magnetic field seems to be that it affects the Earth’s rate of rotation where Solar Minima lead to accelerations and Solar Maxima to decelerations (as discussed in previous papers; [2,5-10]). Several authors have noted a correlation between sunspot activity and Earth’s rotation [2,8-23] or Solar-planetary cycles and Earth’s rotation [10,24-32].

Golovkov [13] plotted Earth’s rate of rotation (spin rate) against sunspot numbers and found that high spin rates correlated with low sunspot numbers and low spin rates with high sunspot numbers. Mörner [2] plotted LOD against sunspot numbers for the period 1831–1995 and found a linear relationship where low LOD values (high spin rate) correlated with low sunspot numbers and high LOD values with high sunspot numbers. Consequently, the Earth’s rotation accelerates at low solar activity and decelerates at high solar activity.

The relations among solar activity, Solar Wind, variations in Earth’s atmospheric shielding capacity and variations in the Earth’s rate of rotation are expressed in Fig. 1

11.08.2019 - 21:32 [ Nils-Axel Mörner / core.ac.uk ]

Solar Wind, Earth’s Rotation and Changes in Terrestrial Climate

(2013)

Solar variability affects Earth climate. It is proposed that this forcing primarily goes via the interaction of the Solar Wind with the Earth’s magnetosphere, rather than via changes in irradiance, which is generally assumed. The cyclic variations in Solar Wind emission generate corresponding changes in the Earth’s rate of rotation (LOD), as recorded by correlations between sunspot numbers and LOD-variations. Variations in Earth’s rotation affect not only the atmospheric circulation but also the ocean circulation.

05.06.2019 - 21:00 [ Ludwig Maximilian Universität München ]

Wenn ein Treibhausgas baden geht: Wie das Erdmagnetfeld unser Klima beeinflusst

(6. Oktober 2008)

Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass selbst kleine Veränderungen des Magnetfelds die Löslichkeit von Gasen im Wasser verändern. „Wenn das Magnetfeld schwächer war, löste sich 15 Prozent weniger Luft im Wasser als bei einem stärkeren Magnetfeld“, erläutert Winklhofer. „Für Kohlendioxid war der beobachtete Effekt sogar doppelt so stark.“

05.06.2019 - 20:56 [ Geophysical Research Letters 35(16) / researchgate.net ]

Magnetic effect on CO 2 solubility in seawater: A possible link between geomagnetic field variations and climate

(August 2008)

Correlations between geomagnetic-field and climate parameters have been suggested repeatedly, but possible links are controversially discussed. Here we test if weak (Earth-strength) magnetic fields can affect climatically relevant properties of seawater. We found the solubility of air in seawater to be by 15% lower under reduced magneticfield (20 mT) compared to normal field conditions (50 mT). The magnetic-field effect on CO2 solubility is twice as large, from which we surmise that geomagnetic field variations modulate the carbon exchange between atmosphere and ocean. A 1% reduction in magnetic dipole moment may release up to ten times more CO2 from the surface ocean than is emitted by subaerial volcanism.

05.06.2019 - 20:29 [ University College London ]

Magnetic Rope observed for the first time between Saturn and the Sun

(06.07.2016)

The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since 2004, and after many years analyzing the data collected, Cassini has observed the first FTE at Saturn.

05.06.2019 - 20:27 [ ScienceMag.org ]

Magnetic Reconnection in the Near Venusian Magnetotail

(04.05.2012)

Observations with the Venus Express magnetometer and low-energy particle detector revealed magnetic field and plasma behavior in the near-Venus wake that is symptomatic of magnetic reconnection, a process that occurs in Earth’s magnetotail but is not expected in the magnetotail of a nonmagnetized planet such as Venus.

05.06.2019 - 20:13 [ National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]

Magnetic Portals Connect Earth to the Sun

(30.10.2008)

„It’s called a flux transfer event or ‚FTE,'“ says space physicist David Sibeck of the Goddard Space Flight Center. „Ten years ago I was pretty sure they didn’t exist, but now the evidence is incontrovertible.“

Indeed, today Sibeck is telling an international assembly of space physicists at the 2008 Plasma Workshop in Huntsville, Alabama, that FTEs are not just common, but possibly twice as common as anyone had ever imagined.

05.06.2019 - 19:28 [ MIT Technology Review i ]

Space weather affects your daily life. It’s time to start paying attention.

“Why can I reach halfway across the world some days, and I can’t get more than 50 miles away other days. Well, our magnetosphere is a living, breathing thing, and it’s driven by the sun.”