Archiv: solar cycles


22.01.2020 - 22:45 [ Forbes.com ]

Is Earth’s Magnetic Shield Eroding?

(29.3.2018)

The strength of Earth’s main magnetic field is currently about 29.5 microteslas, down 5 microteslas, or 14 percent from its strength three centuries ago.

We know this. There is no question of this.

22.01.2020 - 22:09 [ Geophysical Research Letters 35(16) / researchgate.net ]

Magnetic effect on CO 2 solubility in seawater: A possible link between geomagnetic field variations and climate

(August 2008)

Correlations between geomagnetic-field and climate parameters have been suggested repeatedly, but possible links are controversially discussed. Here we test if weak (Earth-strength) magnetic fields can affect climatically relevant properties of seawater. We found the solubility of air in seawater to be by 15% lower under reduced magneticfield (20 mT) compared to normal field conditions (50 mT). The magnetic-field effect on CO2 solubility is twice as large, from which we surmise that geomagnetic field variations modulate the carbon exchange between atmosphere and ocean. A 1% reduction in magnetic dipole moment may release up to ten times more CO2 from the surface ocean than is emitted by subaerial volcanism.

02.01.2020 - 16:52 [ Harvard.edu ]

Equatorial solar rotation and its relation to climatic changes

(29. September 1977)

During the years from 1965 to 1976, the magnitude of the solar rotation speed averaged annually showed a good inverse correlation with the annual relative sunspot numbers. It is suggested that this variation of the equatorial solar rotation speed may be responsible for the earth’s present unusual climatic conditions. A similarity concerning the low sunspot activity for 1976 and the year 1643, just before the beginning of the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715) with its very severe climatic conditions, is pointed out. It appears, therefore, likely that the present unusual climatic conditions will remain as long as the solar activity continues to decrease.

02.01.2020 - 14:36 [ National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]

Solar Activity Forecast for Next Decade Favorable for Exploration

(12.06.2019)

The Sun’s activity rises and falls in an 11-year cycle. The forecast for the next solar cycle says it will be the weakest of the last 200 years. The maximum of this next cycle – measured in terms of sunspot number, a standard measure of solar activity level – could be 30 to 50% lower than the most recent one.

02.01.2020 - 13:40 [ Geophysical Research Letters 35(16) / researchgate.net ]

Magnetic effect on CO 2 solubility in seawater: A possible link between geomagnetic field variations and climate

(August 2008)

Correlations between geomagnetic-field and climate parameters have been suggested repeatedly, but possible links are controversially discussed. Here we test if weak (Earth-strength) magnetic fields can affect climatically relevant properties of seawater. We found the solubility of air in seawater to be by 15% lower under reduced magneticfield (20 mT) compared to normal field conditions (50 mT). The magnetic-field effect on CO2 solubility is twice as large, from which we surmise that geomagnetic field variations modulate the carbon exchange between atmosphere and ocean. A 1% reduction in magnetic dipole moment may release up to ten times more CO2 from the surface ocean than is emitted by subaerial volcanism.

22.12.2019 - 20:07 [ CNN ]

NASA’s new discovery on the sun

Astronomers witnessed an explosion unlike anything seen before that can help scientists better understand the solar atmosphere.

01.11.2019 - 06:52 [ Geophysical Research Letters 35(16) / researchgate.net ]

Magnetic effect on CO 2 solubility in seawater: A possible link between geomagnetic field variations and climate

(August 2008)

Correlations between geomagnetic-field and climate parameters have been suggested repeatedly, but possible links are controversially discussed. Here we test if weak (Earth-strength) magnetic fields can affect climatically relevant properties of seawater. We found the solubility of air in seawater to be by 15% lower under reduced magneticfield (20 mT) compared to normal field conditions (50 mT). The magnetic-field effect on CO2 solubility is twice as large, from which we surmise that geomagnetic field variations modulate the carbon exchange between atmosphere and ocean. A 1% reduction in magnetic dipole moment may release up to ten times more CO2 from the surface ocean than is emitted by subaerial volcanism.

01.11.2019 - 06:33 [ Telegraph.co.uk ]

Sun’s protective ‚bubble‘ is shrinking

(18.10.2008)

The protective bubble around the sun that helps to shield the Earth from harmful interstellar radiation is shrinking and getting weaker, Nasa scientists have warned.

01.11.2019 - 06:29 [ National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]

Solar Activity Forecast for Next Decade Favorable for Exploration

(12.06.2019)

The Sun’s activity rises and falls in an 11-year cycle. The forecast for the next solar cycle says it will be the weakest of the last 200 years. The maximum of this next cycle – measured in terms of sunspot number, a standard measure of solar activity level – could be 30 to 50% lower than the most recent one. The results show that the next cycle will start in 2020 and reach its maximum in 2025.

25.09.2019 - 19:42 [ Geophysical Research Letters 35(16) / researchgate.net ]

Magnetic effect on CO 2 solubility in seawater: A possible link between geomagnetic field variations and climate

(August 2008)

Correlations between geomagnetic-field and climate parameters have been suggested repeatedly, but possible links are controversially discussed. Here we test if weak (Earth-strength) magnetic fields can affect climatically relevant properties of seawater. We found the solubility of air in seawater to be by 15% lower under reduced magneticfield (20 mT) compared to normal field conditions (50 mT). The magnetic-field effect on CO2 solubility is twice as large, from which we surmise that geomagnetic field variations modulate the carbon exchange between atmosphere and ocean. A 1% reduction in magnetic dipole moment may release up to ten times more CO2 from the surface ocean than is emitted by subaerial volcanism.

25.09.2019 - 19:31 [ Forbes.com ]

Is Earth’s Magnetic Shield Eroding?

(29.3.2018)

The strength of Earth’s main magnetic field is currently about 29.5 microteslas, down 5 microteslas, or 14 percent from its strength three centuries ago.

We know this. There is no question of this.

11.08.2019 - 22:20 [ arxiv.org ]

A Relationship between the Solar Rotation and Activity Analysed by Tracing Sunspot Groups

(10.11.2017)

Main result of our investigation is the finding that the Sun rotates more differentially at the minimum than at the maximum of activity during the 1977 – 2016 epoch. This is in agreement with theoretical predictions of reduced differential rotation in the presence of strong magnetic fields. Inverse correlation between equatorial rotation and solar activity was found by many authors before and is corroborated here regardless of the recent revision of sunspot number. The secular decrease of rotation velocity accompanying the increase of activity stopped in the last part of the 20th century when solar activity started to decrease. It was noted that when the significant peak of equatorial rotation velocity is observed during minimum of activity the strength of next maximum is smaller then the previous one. It was suggested that this finding might be connected to a decrease of the magnetic energy of the Sun.

11.08.2019 - 21:54 [ Observatoire de Paris ]

Centennial cycles of the solar activity and Earth rotation

(Oktober 2011)

The irregular and long-term variations of the Earth rotation are mainly caused by the displacements
of matter in different parts of the planet which excitation mechanism is the influence of the Sun and
solar activity cycles. The solar cycles can drive great number of geodynamical processes connected with the convections of the Earth fluids on the surface and inside the Earth. Many of climate and weather parameters are affected directly by the variations of the solar activity.

11.08.2019 - 21:47 [ Harvard.edu ]

Centennial cycles of the solar activity and Earth rotation

(Oktober 2011)

The centennial variations of the Universal Time UT1 and Length of Day LOD are investigated by means of long historical observational series of UT1 and LOD variations, which cover time span more than 3 centuries long. The correlation between the centennial cycles of the Earth rotation, climate and Total Solar Irradiance TSI is determined using the time series of North America temperature (2.2Ka) and precipitation (8Ka), Mean Sea Level MSL variations at Stockholm tide gauge station since 1774 and reconstructed TSI variations since 843. The model of the solar influences on the centennial and decadal cycles of the Earth rotation is based on a main centennial cycle and harmonics, ending by oscillation with period around 9a.

11.08.2019 - 21:38 [ Nils-Axel Mörner / suanet.ac.tz ]

Solar Wind, Earth’s Rotation and Changes in Terrestrial Climate

(08.03.2013)

Another effect of the interaction between the Solar Wind and the Earth’s magnetic field seems to be that it affects the Earth’s rate of rotation where Solar Minima lead to accelerations and Solar Maxima to decelerations (as discussed in previous papers; [2,5-10]). Several authors have noted a correlation between sunspot activity and Earth’s rotation [2,8-23] or Solar-planetary cycles and Earth’s rotation [10,24-32].

Golovkov [13] plotted Earth’s rate of rotation (spin rate) against sunspot numbers and found that high spin rates correlated with low sunspot numbers and low spin rates with high sunspot numbers. Mörner [2] plotted LOD against sunspot numbers for the period 1831–1995 and found a linear relationship where low LOD values (high spin rate) correlated with low sunspot numbers and high LOD values with high sunspot numbers. Consequently, the Earth’s rotation accelerates at low solar activity and decelerates at high solar activity.

The relations among solar activity, Solar Wind, variations in Earth’s atmospheric shielding capacity and variations in the Earth’s rate of rotation are expressed in Fig. 1

11.08.2019 - 21:32 [ Nils-Axel Mörner / core.ac.uk ]

Solar Wind, Earth’s Rotation and Changes in Terrestrial Climate

(2013)

Solar variability affects Earth climate. It is proposed that this forcing primarily goes via the interaction of the Solar Wind with the Earth’s magnetosphere, rather than via changes in irradiance, which is generally assumed. The cyclic variations in Solar Wind emission generate corresponding changes in the Earth’s rate of rotation (LOD), as recorded by correlations between sunspot numbers and LOD-variations. Variations in Earth’s rotation affect not only the atmospheric circulation but also the ocean circulation.

11.08.2019 - 15:25 [ Harvard.edu ]

Equatorial solar rotation and its relation to climatic changes

(29. September 1977)

During the years from 1965 to 1976, the magnitude of the solar rotation speed averaged annually showed a good inverse correlation with the annual relative sunspot numbers. It is suggested that this variation of the equatorial solar rotation speed may be responsible for the earth’s present unusual climatic conditions. A similarity concerning the low sunspot activity for 1976 and the year 1643, just before the beginning of the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715) with its very severe climatic conditions, is pointed out. It appears, therefore, likely that the present unusual climatic conditions will remain as long as the solar activity continues to decrease.

11.08.2019 - 14:14 [ National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]

The Space Station Crosses a Spotless Sun

(15.07.2019)

Transiting the Sun is not very unusual for the ISS, which orbits the Earth about every 90 minutes, but getting one’s timing and equipment just right for a great image is rare. Strangely, besides that fake spot, in this recent two-image composite, the Sun lacked any real sunspots. The featured picture combines two images — one capturing the space station transiting the Sun — and another taken consecutively capturing details of the Sun’s surface. Sunspots have been rare on the Sun since the dawn of the current Solar Minimum, a period of low solar activity. For reasons not yet fully understood, the number of sunspots occurring during both the previous and current solar minima have been unusually low.

11.08.2019 - 14:03 [ Global Warming Policy Forum (GWPF) ]

Solar Cycle 25: May Be The Smallest In Over 300 Years

(26.01.2012)

Livingston and Penn provided the first hard estimate of Solar Cycle 25 amplitude based on a physical model. That estimate is 7, which would make it the smallest solar cycle for over 300 years.

This is figure 2 from their paper:

Livingston and Penn have been tracking the decline in sunspot magnetic field, predicting that sunspots will disappear when the umbral magnetic field strength falls below 1,500 gauss, as per this figure from their 2010 paper:

11.08.2019 - 13:58 [ NationalGeographic.com ]

Sun Headed Into Hibernation, Solar Studies Predict: Sunspots may disappear altogether in next cycle.

(14.06.2011)

This time, however, the rush to the poles is more of a crawl, which means we could be headed toward a very weak solar maximum in 2013—and it may delay or even prevent the start of the next solar cycle.

Taken together, the three lines of evidence strongly hint that Solar Cycle 25 may be a bust, the scientists said today during a meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Las Cruces, New Mexico.

11.08.2019 - 13:45 [ National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]

Long Range Solar Forecast: Solar Cycle 25 peaking around 2022 could be one of the weakest in centuries.

(10.05.2006)

How do you observe a belt that plunges 200,000 km below the surface of the sun?

„We do it using sunspots,“ Hathaway explains. Sunspots are magnetic knots that bubble up from the base of the conveyor belt, eventually popping through the surface of the sun. Astronomers have long known that sunspots have a tendency to drift—from mid solar latitudes toward the sun’s equator. According to current thinking, this drift is caused by the motion of the conveyor belt. „By measuring the drift of sunspot groups,“ says Hathaway, „we indirectly measure the speed of the belt.“

11.08.2019 - 13:22 [ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA.gov) ]

Space Weather Impacts On Climate

All weather on Earth, from the surface of the planet out into space, begins with the Sun. Space weather and terrestrial weather (the weather we feel at the surface) are influenced by the small changes the Sun undergoes during its solar cycle.

(…)

The duration of solar minimum may also have an impact on Earth’s climate. During solar minimum there is a maximum in the amount of Cosmic rays, high energy particles whose source is outside our Solar system, reaching earth. There is a theory that cosmic rays can create nucleation sites in the atmosphere which seed cloud formation and create cloudier conditions. If this were true, then there would be a significant impact on climate, which would be modulated by the 11-year solar cycle.

05.06.2019 - 20:56 [ Geophysical Research Letters 35(16) / researchgate.net ]

Magnetic effect on CO 2 solubility in seawater: A possible link between geomagnetic field variations and climate

(August 2008)

Correlations between geomagnetic-field and climate parameters have been suggested repeatedly, but possible links are controversially discussed. Here we test if weak (Earth-strength) magnetic fields can affect climatically relevant properties of seawater. We found the solubility of air in seawater to be by 15% lower under reduced magneticfield (20 mT) compared to normal field conditions (50 mT). The magnetic-field effect on CO2 solubility is twice as large, from which we surmise that geomagnetic field variations modulate the carbon exchange between atmosphere and ocean. A 1% reduction in magnetic dipole moment may release up to ten times more CO2 from the surface ocean than is emitted by subaerial volcanism.

05.06.2019 - 19:28 [ MIT Technology Review i ]

Space weather affects your daily life. It’s time to start paying attention.

“Why can I reach halfway across the world some days, and I can’t get more than 50 miles away other days. Well, our magnetosphere is a living, breathing thing, and it’s driven by the sun.”

25.05.2019 - 15:17 [ Phys.org ]

Scientists predict sun’s activity will be weak during next solar cycle

(08.04.2019)

„We expect Solar Cycle 25 will be very similar to Cycle 24: another fairly weak cycle, preceded by a long, deep minimum,“ said panel co-chair Lisa Upton, Ph.D., solar physicist with Space Systems Research Corp. „The expectation that Cycle 25 will be comparable in size to Cycle 24 means that the steady decline in solar cycle amplitude, seen from cycles 21-24, has come to an end and that there is no indication that we are currently approaching a Maunder-type minimum in solar activity.“

25.05.2019 - 15:09 [ NationalGeographic.com ]

Surprise: Solar System „Force Field“ Shrinks Fast

(01.10.2010)

„If we’ve learned anything from IBEX so far, it is that the models that we’re using for interaction of the solar wind with the galaxy were just dead wrong,“ David McComas, principal investigator for the IBEX program, said during a NASA press conference Thursday.

For starters, it’s been assumed that the heliosphere’s expansion and contraction follows the sun’s roughly 11-year activity cycle, during which the flow rate of charged particles, or solar wind, fluctuates.

25.05.2019 - 09:25 [ Nature.com ]

Less absorbed solar energy and more internal heat for Jupiter

(13.09.2018)

The radiant energy budget and internal heat are fundamental properties of giant planets, but precise determination of these properties remains a challenge.

(…)

Furthermore, the significant wavelength dependency of Jupiter’s albedo implies that the radiant energy budgets and internal heat of the other giant planets in our solar system should be re-examined.

(…)

Furthermore, the transfer and distribution of radiant energy within the atmospheric systems modify the thermal structure and hence generate the mechanical energy to drive atmospheric circulation, weather, and climate. The radiant energy budget and the related internal heat of the giant planets also bear upon their evolutionary history.

29.04.2019 - 13:21 [ Geophysical Research Letters 35(16) / researchgate.net ]

Magnetic effect on CO 2 solubility in seawater: A possible link between geomagnetic field variations and climate

(August 2008)

Correlations between geomagnetic-field and climate parameters have been suggested repeatedly, but possible links are controversially discussed. Here we test if weak (Earth-strength) magnetic fields can affect climatically relevant properties of seawater. We found the solubility of air in seawater to be by 15% lower under reduced magneticfield (20 mT) compared to normal field conditions (50 mT). The magnetic-field effect on CO2 solubility is twice as large, from which we surmise that geomagnetic field variations modulate the carbon exchange between atmosphere and ocean. A 1% reduction in magnetic dipole moment may release up to ten times more CO2 from the surface ocean than is emitted by subaerial volcanism.

29.04.2019 - 13:15 [ Stanford University ]

ON THE WEAKENING OF THE POLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS DURING SOLAR CYCLE 23

(20. Dezember 2009)

The Sun’s polar fields are currently ∼40% weaker than they were during the previous three sunspot minima. This weakening has been accompanied by a corresponding decrease in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strength, by a ∼20% shrinkage in the polar coronal-hole areas, and by a reduction in the solar-wind mass flux over the poles. It has also been reflected in coronal streamer structure and the heliospheric current sheet, which only showed the expected flattening into the equatorial plane after sunspot numbers fell to unusually low values in mid-2008. From latitude–time plots of the photospheric field, it has long been apparent that the polar fields are formed through the transport of trailing-polarity flux from the sunspot latitudes to the poles.

29.04.2019 - 12:14 [ SDO | Solar Dynamics Observatory / Youtube ]

Sunspots and Magnetic Fields

The physical correlation of magnetic intensity and sunspots is clearly revealed when we fade back and forth between a filtered (i.e., white light) image of the Sun with a magnetic image (magnetogram) taken at the same time (Dec. 18, 2014). Two large sunspot groups with strong magnetic intensity stand out in both the magnetic and white light images.

29.04.2019 - 10:51 [ Phys.org ]

Scientists predict sun’s activity will be weak during next solar cycle

(8. April 2019)

„We expect Solar Cycle 25 will be very similar to Cycle 24: another fairly weak cycle, preceded by a long, deep minimum,“ said panel co-chair Lisa Upton, Ph.D., solar physicist with Space Systems Research Corp. „The expectation that Cycle 25 will be comparable in size to Cycle 24 means that the steady decline in solar cycle amplitude, seen from cycles 21-24, has come to an end and that there is no indication that we are currently approaching a Maunder-type minimum in solar activity.“

14.04.2019 - 19:50 [ Washington Post ]

Scientists predict a new solar cycle is about to begin and that it might be stronger than the last one

(11. April 2019)

The decline in sunspot activity through cycle 24 was worrisome to some space weather scientists in that it suggested a return to a lengthy “solar drought,” reminiscent of the Maunder Minimum period of 1645-1715. Records show the sun was essentially spotless for this lengthy period, coinciding with the “Little Ice Age” in Europe and tickling the interest of scientists to wonder whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between solar behavior and Earth’s climate.

14.04.2019 - 19:47 [ Phys.org ]

Scientists predict sun’s activity will be weak during next solar cycle

(8. April 2019)

„We expect Solar Cycle 25 will be very similar to Cycle 24: another fairly weak cycle, preceded by a long, deep minimum,“ said panel co-chair Lisa Upton, Ph.D., solar physicist with Space Systems Research Corp. „The expectation that Cycle 25 will be comparable in size to Cycle 24 means that the steady decline in solar cycle amplitude, seen from cycles 21-24, has come to an end and that there is no indication that we are currently approaching a Maunder-type minimum in solar activity.“

14.04.2019 - 19:46 [ National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]

Solar Wind Loses Power, Hits 50-year Low

(23. September 2008)

In a briefing today at NASA headquarters, solar physicists announced that the solar wind is losing power.

„The average pressure of the solar wind has dropped more than 20% since the mid-1990s,“ says Dave McComas of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. „This is the weakest it’s been since we began monitoring solar wind almost 50 years ago.“

14.04.2019 - 18:54 [ Telegraph.co.uk ]

Sun’s protective ‚bubble‘ is shrinking

(18.10.2008)

The protective bubble around the sun that helps to shield the Earth from harmful interstellar radiation is shrinking and getting weaker, Nasa scientists have warned.

08.12.2018 - 15:32 [ Huffington Post ]

Waiting For The Next Sunspot Cycle: 2019-2030

(6.12.2017) By Cycle 25 or 26, magnetic fields may be too weak to punch through the solar surface and form recognizable sunspots at all,

08.12.2018 - 15:25 [ Resonance.is ]

Is our solar system heating up?

With the decrease of solar activity, the magnetic field of oursun is losing power too. This heliosphere shields us forming a gigantic bubble which surrounds and protects our solar system from harmful galactic cosmic rays, these high-energy particles that zip through the universe. Thanks to Voyagers 1 leaving the Solar system, we now have a good vision of it and of its shielding effect. It appears to be an indispensable protection for our fast moving throughout the Universe. But, with a weaker heliosphere Earth will begin to endure more and more the cosmic rays.

08.12.2018 - 15:19 [ ScienceMag.com ]

Decades-Long Changes of the Interstellar Wind Through Our Solar System

(6.9.2013) The flow of interstellar gas and dust through the solar system was thought to be unvarying, but Frisch et al. (p. 1080) show that there has been a significant variation of the direction of the flow of interstellar helium through the solar system over the past 40 years.

08.12.2018 - 15:14 [ Telegraph.co.uk ]

Sun’s protective ‚bubble‘ is shrinking

(18.10.2008) The protective bubble around the sun that helps to shield the Earth from harmful interstellar radiation is shrinking and getting weaker, Nasa scientists have warned.

08.12.2018 - 15:12 [ Leibniz-Institut für Atmosphärenphysik e.V. an der Universität Rostock ]

Influence of the 11-year solar cycle on planetary wave structures in the stratosphere and mesosphere

(2011) The stationary wave structures in the spatial distribution of stratospheric ozone have a significant influence on the local radiative heating and therefore on planetary wave propagation, temperature, circulation and trace gas distributions in the stratosphere and mesosphere. We show that these effects of O3* , which is the zonally asymmetric component of ozone, are modified by the 11-year cycle in solar irradiation,

08.12.2018 - 14:54 [ Washington Post ]

Sun activity is in free fall, but you shouldn’t expect a new little ice age

(11.11.2013) “Solar activity is declining very fast at the moment,” Mike Lockwood, a professor of space environmental physics at Britain’s Reading University, said, “we estimate faster than at any time in the last 9,300 years.”

08.12.2018 - 14:50 [ BBC ]

Has the Sun gone to sleep?

(17.Januar 2014) Scientists are saying that the Sun is in a phase of „solar lull“ – meaning that it has fallen asleep – and it is baffling them.

08.12.2018 - 14:44 [ notrickszone.com ]

Solar Cycle Continues To Be The Weakest In 2 Centuries

(23.8.2017) Our source of energy and life at the center of our solar system was significantly below normal with respect to activity last month.

The measured sunspot number (SSN) was 18.3. That was only 36% of what is typical (51) this far into the solar cycle – calculated from the previous 23 solar cycles recorded.

08.12.2018 - 14:31 [ Space.com ]

No Global Cooling Miracle: Sun’s Activity Lull Will Stop Soon, Study Suggests

We can’t count on waning solar activity to help bail us out of our climate-change problem in the near future, a new study suggests.

08.12.2018 - 14:24 [ Firstpost.com ]

Mini ice-age, planet cooling from natural dip in Sun’s heat ruled out: Study

A team of scientists from the Center of Excellence in Space Sciences and Department of Physical Sciences at Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Kolkata led by Prantika Bhowmik and Professor Dibyendu Nandi have dismissed the speculation ofessor Dibyendu Nandi have dismissed the speculation and claim ……………………..

20.11.2018 - 15:45 [ NASA Goddard / Youtube ]

NASA | Thermonuclear Art – The Sun In Ultra-HD (4K)

Presented in ultra-high definition, the video presents the dance of the ultra-hot material on our life-giving star in extraordinary detail, offering an intimate view of the grand forces of the solar system.

20.11.2018 - 15:35 [ NASASolarSystem / Youtube ]

Voyager Satellites Find Magnetic Bubbles at Edge of Solar System

(9.11.2011) This ribbon shows the emission of energetic particles and seems to indicate some interaction with interstellar space.

20.11.2018 - 15:33 [ NASA Goddard / Youtube ]

Understanding the Magnetic Sun

(29.1.2016) Grasping what drives that magnetic system is crucial for understanding the nature of space throughout the solar system: The sun’s invisible magnetic field is responsible for everything from the solar explosions that cause space weather on Earth – such as auroras – to the interplanetary magnetic field and radiation through which our spacecraft journeying around the solar system must travel.

20.11.2018 - 15:05 [ Forbes.com ]

Is Earth’s Magnetic Shield Eroding?

(29.3.2018) The strength of Earth’s main magnetic field is currently about 29.5 microteslas, down 5 microteslas, or 14 percent from its strength three centuries ago.

We know this. There is no question of this.

20.11.2018 - 14:47 [ Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ]

The Case of Earth’s Incredible Shrinking Field

(1.11.2006) Earth’s magnetic field has been monitored carefully since the 1830s, when the German polymath Karl Friedrich Gauss invented a way to measure its intensity. Since then, the field has decayed at the ­startling rate of about 5 percent per century

20.11.2018 - 13:16 [ CBNcom ]

Something’s Happening to the Sun Right Now, Here’s What It Means for Earth

(13.11.2018) If the trend continues, the NASA scientist says we could see record cold in a matter of months.

„The thermosphere always cools off during Solar Minimum. It’s one of the most important ways the solar cycle affects our planet,“ Mlynczak said.

20.11.2018 - 13:15 [ National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]

Solar Wind Loses Power, Hits 50-year Low

Sept. 23, 2008: In a briefing today at NASA headquarters, solar physicists announced that the solar wind is losing power.

„The average pressure of the solar wind has dropped more than 20% since the mid-1990s,“ says Dave McComas of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. „This is the weakest it’s been since we began monitoring solar wind almost 50 years ago.“

20.11.2018 - 13:13 [ Telegraph.co.uk ]

Sun’s protective ‚bubble‘ is shrinking

(18.10.2008) The protective bubble around the sun that helps to shield the Earth from harmful interstellar radiation is shrinking and getting weaker, Nasa scientists have warned.

20.11.2018 - 13:08 [ National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]

Excitement Increases as Voyager 2 sees a decrease in Heliospheric Particles

(14.11.2018) In the following graph of the Low Energy Telescope data, right around the beginning of November, you’ll notice a pretty dramatic change: All of a sudden, the Voyager 2 counting rate of low-energy particles dropped, although it hasn’t yet dropped to nearly zero as it did when Voyager 1 entered interstellar space. Scientists will keep their eye on these graphs …

20.11.2018 - 13:05 [ NASA Sun & Space ‏/ Twitter ]

Excitement goes up ? as @NASAVoyager 2’s count of heliospheric particles goes down These low-energy particles originate within the Sun’s bubble of magnetic influence — the heliosphere — and their count should drop to near-zero in interstellar space:

(17.11.2018)

20.11.2018 - 12:55 [ Forbes.com ]

What Caused That Spooky And Impossible Fire In The Atlantic Ocean?

(31.10.2018) There was no fire; it was a radiation phantom, playing tricks with the satellite’s highly sensitive instruments.

As Voiland’s piece notes, algorithms are designed to filter out these curiosities, but every now and then, a few can slip through, resulting in some rather fascinating ghosts in the machine.

20.11.2018 - 12:45 [ National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]

A Fire in the Middle of the Atlantic Ocean?

(14.7.2017) “It is almost certainly SAMA,” Oliva said, using an acronym for the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. This weakness in Earth’s magnetic field, centered over South America and the South Atlantic, allows one of Earth’s Van Allen radiation belts—zones of energetic particles trapped by the magnetic field—to dip closer to the atmosphere. As a result, much of South America and part of the South Atlantic Ocean get an extra dose of radiation.

20.11.2018 - 12:40 [ Scienceblogs.com ]

Why the Earth wears an Antimatter Belt!

(9.8.2011) The Earth’s magnetic field — the same field that causes your compass needle to point North — extends far out into space, and shields us from the high-energy, charged particles that come from not only the Sun, but also from powerful galactic and extra-galactic sources!

The Solar Wind, however, would by far be the most deadly to us, were it not for this magnetic „shield“ that the Earth produces.

20.11.2018 - 12:23 [ qrz.com ]

A new solar index number is being published – Thermosphere Climate Index

(1.10.2018) Hi Everybody;

As the sun plummets into the solar minimum a new index is derived to measure the total energy budget of the planet.

20.11.2018 - 12:20 [ spaceweatherarchive.com ]

The Chill of Solar Minimum

(27.9.2018) As 2018 comes to an end, the Thermosphere Climate Index is on the verge of setting a Space Age record for Cold. “We’re not there quite yet,” says Mlynczak, “but it could happen in a matter of months.”

20.11.2018 - 12:18 [ Phys.org ]

Solar activity is declining—what to expect?

(17.8.2015) The solar cycle is the periodic change in the Sun’s activity and appearance like changes in the number of sunspots. It has an average duration of about 11 years. The current solar cycle began on in January 2008, with minimal activity until early 2010. The sun is now on track to have the lowest recorded sunspot activity since accurate records began in 1750.

08.10.2018 - 22:52 [ Telegraph.co.uk ]

Sun’s protective ‚bubble‘ is shrinking

(18.10.2008) The protective bubble around the sun that helps to shield the Earth from harmful interstellar radiation is shrinking and getting weaker, Nasa scientists have warned.

01.10.2018 - 20:38 [ Resonance.is ]

Is our solar system heating up?

With the decrease of solar activity, the magnetic field of oursun is losing power too. This heliosphere shields us forming a gigantic bubble which surrounds and protects our solar system from harmful galactic cosmic rays, these high-energy particles that zip through the universe. Thanks to Voyagers 1 leaving the Solar system, we now have a good vision of it and of its shielding effect. It appears to be an indispensable protection for our fast moving throughout the Universe. But, with a weaker heliosphere Earth will begin to endure more and more the cosmic rays.

01.10.2018 - 20:31 [ ScienceMag.com ]

Decades-Long Changes of the Interstellar Wind Through Our Solar System

(6.9.2013) The flow of interstellar gas and dust through the solar system was thought to be unvarying, but Frisch et al. (p. 1080) show that there has been a significant variation of the direction of the flow of interstellar helium through the solar system over the past 40 years.

01.10.2018 - 20:27 [ Astrophysical Journal Letters ]

Ultraviolet Flux Decrease Under a Grand Minimum from IUE Short-wavelength Observation of Solar Analogs

(27.12.2017) From this linear regression we estimate a range in UV flux of 9.3% over solar cycle 22 and a reduction of 6.9% below solar cycle minimum under a grand minimum.

01.10.2018 - 20:21 [ Huffington Post ]

Waiting For The Next Sunspot Cycle: 2019-2030

(6.12.2017) By Cycle 25 or 26, magnetic fields may be too weak to punch through the solar surface and form recognizable sunspots at all,

01.10.2018 - 20:14 [ Washington Post ]

The sun is spotless and serene: What does it mean?

(30.7.2018) They believe that Cycle 25 will be smaller than the current cycle by approximately 25 percent.

01.10.2018 - 20:11 [ Space.com ]

Sun’s Current Solar Activity Cycle Is Weakest in a Century

(11.12.2013) Scientists also think they know why relatively few super-fast solar energetic particles, or SEPS, have been measured in Earth’s neighborhood during the current cycle, which began in early 2008. It has to do with a weakened interplanetary magnetic field, another characteristic of Solar Cycle 24, they say.

01.10.2018 - 19:20 [ NASA Goddard / Youtube ]

Understanding the Magnetic Sun

(29.1.2016) Grasping what drives that magnetic system is crucial for understanding the nature of space throughout the solar system: The sun’s invisible magnetic field is responsible for everything from the solar explosions that cause space weather on Earth – such as auroras – to the interplanetary magnetic field and radiation through which our spacecraft journeying around the solar system must travel.

01.10.2018 - 19:05 [ Nature.com ]

Declining solar activity linked to recent warming

(6.10.2010) An analysis of satellite data challenges the intuitive idea that decreasing solar activity cools Earth, and vice versa. In fact, solar forcing of Earth’s surface climate seems to work the opposite way around — at least during the current Sun cycle. (…)

Contrary to expectations, the net amount of solar energy reaching Earth’s troposphere — the lowest part of the atmosphere — seems to have been larger in 2007 than in 2004, despite the decline in solar activity over that period.

The spectral changes seem to have altered the distribution of ozone molecules above the troposphere.

01.10.2018 - 18:52 [ Leibniz-Institut für Atmosphärenphysik e.V. an der Universität Rostock ]

Influence of the 11-year solar cycle on planetary wave structures in the stratosphere and mesosphere

(2011) The stationary wave structures in the spatial distribution of stratospheric ozone have a significant influence on the local radiative heating and therefore on planetary wave propagation, temperature, circulation and trace gas distributions in the stratosphere and mesosphere. We show that these effects of O3* , which is the zonally asymmetric component of ozone, are modified by the 11-year cycle in solar irradiation,

01.10.2018 - 18:50 [ Potsdam Institute / Youtube ]

Rossby waves and extreme weather

(15.4.2016) Learn how giant airstreams high in the sky get trapped sometimes – leading to devastating weather extremes on the ground. Copyright: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research PIK and Climate Media Factory. This video was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). PIK research on the subject: – Evidence for wave resonance as a key mechanism for generating high-amplitude quasi-stationary waves in boreal Summer

29.09.2018 - 15:44 [ Scott E. Forbush / National Center for Biotechnology Information / National Institutes of Health ]

SOLAR INFLUENCES ON COSMIC RAYS

(15. Januar 1957) Probably all the established variations with time of cosmic-ray intensity are directly or indirectly due to solar influences.

29.09.2018 - 15:40 [ PhysicsWorld.com ]

The riddle of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays

(31.7.2018) Far, far away, something – somewhere – is creating particles with crazy amounts of energy. Whatever they are or wherever they’re from, these particles can be anything between 1018 eV and 1020 eV. Given that the top particle energy at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider is about 1013 eV, some of these particles are a million times more energetic than anything we can fashion at the most powerful particle accelerator on the planet. Quite simply, they’re the most energetic particles ever seen in nature.

Known as ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), these particles were discovered in 1962.

29.09.2018 - 15:40 [ Vice.com ]

Mysterious Cosmic Rays Shooting from the Ground in Antarctica Could Break Physics

(today) Physicists have long known that high energy particles can penetrate deep into Earth, but none of the particles predicted by the Standard Model—the most accurate model of physics that has ever existed—should be able to pass all the way through the planet.

29.09.2018 - 15:36 [ Telegraph.co.uk ]

Sun’s protective ‚bubble‘ is shrinking

(18.10.2008) The protective bubble around the sun that helps to shield the Earth from harmful interstellar radiation is shrinking and getting weaker, Nasa scientists have warned.

29.09.2018 - 15:22 [ BBC ]

Is our Sun falling silent?

(18.Januar 2014) „I’ve been a solar physicist for 30 years, and I’ve never seen anything quite like this,“ says Richard Harrison, head of space physics at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire.

29.09.2018 - 13:39 [ National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]

Fermi Talks Tech: The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) as a Solar Monitor

(21.9.2018) Some of these triggers are due to the cosmological Gamma-ray Bursts, others to sporadic bursting sources of impulsive high-energy emission within our galaxy such as Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters or accreting binary systems. (…)
This has happened nearly 1200 times during the mission, with most of the triggers arising during the most active part of the solar cycle.

29.09.2018 - 13:37 [ Cornell University Library ]

Astrophysics – High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena: First HAWC Observations of the Sun Constrain Steady TeV Gamma-Ray Emission

(16.8.2018) The likely cause is hadronic cosmic rays undergoing collisions in the Sun’s atmosphere after being redirected from ingoing to outgoing in magnetic fields, though the exact mechanism is not understood.

29.09.2018 - 13:31 [ Physics Today ]

A puzzling gamma-ray survey of the Sun

(14.8.2018) Our star appears to unleash its most energetic photons during the quiet phase of its 11-year cycle.

(…)

The flux significantly exceeded that predicted by the one and only model that takes on cosmic-ray interactions with solar gas.

19.08.2018 - 20:50 [ National Center for Biotechnology Information / National Institutes of Health ]

Cosmic Influence on the Sun-Earth Environment

(Dezember 2008) Since the early days of human civilization we have looked at the sky and tried to understand the environment of the Earth and the Universe [1, 2, 3, 4, and 5]. We are continuously collecting data for different environmental parameters. Sudden heat or cold waves, tornados, erratic rainfall and snowfall are being observed and their forewarning has been attempted. Efforts have been made to understand the influence of stars and the Sun, which, although they are distant objects in space, can influence the environment of the Earth. Extragalactic cosmic rays measured as neutron counting rate, represent an energy spectrum, which is being received by the solar system from the distant stars; the particles of cosmic rays are atom –nuclei with almost light velocity [6, 7]. The effects of the Sun on the environment of the Earth were found to be modulated by the geomagnetic field and the ionizing potential of the cosmic rays [8]. Earth directed Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) and its effects on the thermosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere have been studied. During Earth directed CME a beam of electrons (plasma) is pumped towards the Earth [9]. This beam of electrons is highly conductive and generates an electric field that is transmitted to Earth’s natural plasmosphere and ionosphere. This thin layer of changed electric field further influences the ionosphere and atmosphere of the earth [24]. Since a beam of electrons is carried by an electric current, a magnetic disturbance would be produced. Starbursts are caused by a special variety of neutron star known as a magnetar. These fast-spinning, compact stellar bodies create intense magnetic fields that trigger explosions, which are known as starbursts. Starbursts cause the Sun to develop low Planetary Indices (Kp) and low Electron flux (E-flux) conditions for the Sun-Earth Environment.
(…)
If the electron flux from the sun is low, with the subsequent rise in cosmic rays simultaneously anomalous snowfall and lowering of the atmospheric temperature has been observed. It would be possible to understand the movement of clouds and snowfall, as well as atmospheric moisture, if we could efficiently calculate the influence of space weather and cosmic influence on the thermosphere and atmosphere of the Earth [12]. Based on the same hypothesis it was found that an abnormal rise and sudden fall in E-flux, Kp index and atmospheric temperature has the possibility of triggering earthquakes in active fault areas of the Earth due to temporary changes in the magnetic field of the Earth. The whole process was expressed as a precursor of earthquakes in active fault areas.

19.08.2018 - 20:16 [ PerspectaWeather.com ]

More evidence of an increase in cosmic rays as sun approaches minimum

(26.5.2017) “Spaceweather.com” has led an effort for more than two years to monitor radiation levels in the stratosphere over California with frequent high-altitude helium balloon flights. These balloons contain sensors which detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV and are produced by the crash of primary cosmic rays into Earth’s atmosphere. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners. The findings confirm the notion that indeed cosmic rays have been steadily increasing over California as solar cycle 24 heads towards the next solar minimum. In fact, there has been a 13% increase of stratospheric radiation over California from March 2015 to May 2017.

19.08.2018 - 20:14 [ Bartol Research Institute - University of Delaware ]

COSMIC RAYS AND THE SOLAR CYCLE

Emissions of matter and electromagnetic fields from the Sun increase during high solar activity, making it harder for Galactic cosmic rays to reach Earth. Cosmic ray intensity is lower when solar activity is high.

19.08.2018 - 20:08 [ Washington Post ]

Sun activity is in free fall, but you shouldn’t expect a new little ice age

(11.11.2013) “Solar activity is declining very fast at the moment,” Mike Lockwood, a professor of space environmental physics at Britain’s Reading University, said, “we estimate faster than at any time in the last 9,300 years.”

19.08.2018 - 20:00 [ PerspectaWeather.com ]

Weakest solar cycle in more than a century now heading towards next solar minimum

(1.2.2016) The current solar cycle, #24, is the weakest solar cycle in more than a century and it is now heading towards the next solar minimum phase which would be the beginning of solar cycle #25. The last solar minimum phase lasted from 2007 to 2009 and it was historically weak. In fact, it produced three of the most spotless days on the sun since the middle 1800’s (bar graph below).

19.08.2018 - 19:38 [ iflscience.com ]

The Sun Is Turning Blank And We’re Not Quite Sure Why

(3.5.2018) We do know the Sun goes through variations, so there’s nothing to be too worried about. But it is quite unusual, especially as we’re not even really sure what causes solar cycles. Maybe the Sun is just taking some well-deserved time off. After 4.6 billion years, who could blame it?

19.08.2018 - 19:23 [ Nature.com ]

Declining solar activity linked to recent warming

(6.10.2010) An analysis of satellite data challenges the intuitive idea that decreasing solar activity cools Earth, and vice versa. In fact, solar forcing of Earth’s surface climate seems to work the opposite way around — at least during the current Sun cycle. (…)

Contrary to expectations, the net amount of solar energy reaching Earth’s troposphere — the lowest part of the atmosphere — seems to have been larger in 2007 than in 2004, despite the decline in solar activity over that period.

The spectral changes seem to have altered the distribution of ozone molecules above the troposphere.

19.08.2018 - 19:08 [ ann-geophys.net ]

On the solar cycle dependence of winds and planetary waves as seen from mid-latitude D1 LF mesopause region wind measurements

(März 1998)

Two mechanisms of the development of the wave are discussed: Salby (1981a,b) proposes that the quasi-2-day wave is a resonant ampliÆcation of the antisymmetric (3,3)-normal mode. Plumb (1983), however, suggests that the wave appears due to baroclinic instability near the summer stratospheric wind jet. The climatology of the quasi-2-day wave at Collm was described in detail by Jacobi et al. (1997c), who also pointed out that an influence of the 11-year solar cycle on its amplitude could be seen.

In the following, mesopause wind data measured at the Collm Observatory of the University of Leipzig are investigated with respect to a possible solar cycle dependence.

19.08.2018 - 19:07 [ Leibniz-Institut für Atmosphärenphysik e.V. an der Universität Rostock ]

Influence of the 11-year solar cycle on planetary wave structures in the stratosphere and mesosphere

(2011) The stationary wave structures in the spatial distribution of stratospheric ozone have a significant influence on the local radiative heating and therefore on planetary wave propagation, temperature, circulation and trace gas distributions in the stratosphere and mesosphere. We show that these effects of O3* , which is the zonally asymmetric component of ozone, are modified by the 11-year cycle in solar irradiation,

19.08.2018 - 17:25 [ Potsdam Institute / Youtube ]

Rossby waves and extreme weather

(15.4.2016) Learn how giant airstreams high in the sky get trapped sometimes – leading to devastating weather extremes on the ground. Copyright: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research PIK and Climate Media Factory. This video was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). PIK research on the subject: – Evidence for wave resonance as a key mechanism for generating high-amplitude quasi-stationary waves in boreal Summer

19.08.2018 - 17:09 [ National Center for Atmospheric Research, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research / ScienceDaily.com ]

Scientists link California droughts, floods to distinctive atmospheric waves

(6.4.2017) Wavenumber-5 consists of five pairs of alternating high- and low-pressure features that encircle the globe about six miles (10 kilometers) above the ground. It is a type of atmospheric phenomenon known as a Rossby wave, a very large-scale planetary wave that can have strong impacts on local weather systems by moving heat and moisture between the tropics and higher latitudes as well as between oceanic and inland areas and by influencing where storms occur.

The slow-moving Rossby waves at times become almost stationary. When they do, the result can be persistent weather patterns that often lead to droughts, floods, and heat waves.

19.08.2018 - 16:56 [ University Corporation for Atmospheric Research . ]

Planetary waves, first found on Earth, are discovered on Sun

(27.3.2017) for a brief period, from 2011 to 2014, scientists had the unprecedented opportunity to see the Sun’s entire atmosphere at once. During that time, observations from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), which sits between the Sun and Earth, were supplemented by measurements from NASA’s Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) mission, which included two spacecraft orbiting the Sun. Collectively, the three observatories provided a 360-degree view of the Sun until contact was lost with one of the STEREO spacecraft in 2014. McIntosh and his co-authors mined the data collected during the window of full solar coverage to see if the large-scale wave patterns might emerge.

„By combining the data from all three satellites we can see the entire Sun, and that’s important for studies like this because you want the measurements to all be at the same time,“ said Dean Pesnell, SDO project scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. „They’re pushing the boundary of how we use solar data to understand the interior of the Sun and where the magnetic field of the Sun comes from.“

19.08.2018 - 16:12 [ Phys.org ]

Waves similar to those controlling weather on Earth have now been found on the Sun

(7.5.2018) The existence of Rossby waves in stars was predicted about forty years ago.

19.08.2018 - 15:53 [ Phys.org ]

Are Rossby waves to blame for Earth’s magnetic field drifting westward?

(16.5.2018) Humans first became aware of the Earth’s magnetic field over 400 years ago, and since that time, have been taking measurements of it. As time passed, it became clear that the field was moving in a westerly direction—and nobody knew why. The actual reason is still not known—Bardsley is proposing a new idea: Somehow, Rossby waves in the Earth’s outer core cause the magnetic drift.

19.08.2018 - 15:51 [ Massachusetts Insitute of Technology ]

Study: Hole in ionosphere is caused by sudden stratospheric warming

(6.8.2018) Geospace research has long established that certain changes in the atmosphere are caused by the sun’s radiation, through mechanisms including solar wind, geomagnetic storms, and solar flares. (…)

One of the more scientifically interesting large-scale atmospheric events is called a sudden stratospheric warming (SSW), in which enormous waves in the troposphere — the lowermost layer of the atmosphere in which we live — propagate upward into the stratosphere. These planetary waves are generated by air moving over geological structures such as large mountain ranges; once in the stratosphere, they interact with the polar jet streams.

19.08.2018 - 14:39 [ Wikipedia ]

Upper-atmospheric models: Planetary waves

According to a report in New Scientist[4] many researchers are in consensus that Rossby waves are acting against the jet stream’s usual pattern and holding it in place. Upper atmospheric studies using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data indicates that during July 2010 these upper air stream patterns were most frequently observed in the Northern Hemisphere.[5] Examination of the climatology data over the same period of time indicates that these wild planetary wave meanderings[6] are not a normal aspect of our regional climate patterns. Meanwhile, ongoing research studies at the University of Reading show that unusual patterns in the polar jet stream are more common during a period of low activity in the solar cycle when the observed sun spot activity and their associated solar flares are at their minimum.

19.08.2018 - 14:34 [ SpaceWeatherArchive.com ]

A Mystery in the Mesosphere

(15.8.2018) Harvey and her colleagues are still working to understand how the extra water got up there. One possibility involves planetary wave activity in the southern hemisphere which can, ironically, boost the upwelling of water vapor tens of thousands of miles away in the north. The phenomenon could also be linked to solar minimum, now underway. It is notable that the coldest and wettest years in the mesosphere prior to 2018 were 2008-2009–the previous minimum of the 11-year solar cycle.