Archiv: planetary atmospheres (climates)


15.11.2019 - 15:00 [ businessinsider.fr ]

A NASA scientist’s incredible animation shows how dinosaurs roamed the Earth on the other side of the Milky Way galaxy

Our sun orbits the galaxy’s center, so many dinosaurs roamed the Earth while the planet was on the other side of the Milky Way.

Our solar system’s orbit keeps us just the right distance from the galaxy’s chaotic center for life to exist.

15.11.2019 - 12:27 [ Dr. Jessie Christiansen ‏/ Twitter ]

I have always been interested in galactic archaeology, but I don’t think this is what they meant. Did you know that dinosaurs lived on the other side of the Galaxy?

14.11.2019 - 12:56 [ Schenectady Gazette / Google.com ]

Methane, Ammonia on Mars? Mariner 7 Sees Hint of Life

(8.August 1969)

Pimentel´s evidence was from an infrared spectrometer, designed to detect elements by measuring their radiation.

14.11.2019 - 12:50 [ CNN ]

The Curiosity rover detects oxygen behaving strangely on Mars

„We’re struggling to explain this,“ said Melissa Trainer, study author and planetary scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. „The fact that the oxygen behavior isn’t perfectly repeatable every season makes us think that it’s not an issue that has to do with atmospheric dynamics. It has to be some chemical source and sink (of elements into the soil) that we can’t yet account for.“

It relates back to the methane mystery.

01.11.2019 - 06:52 [ Geophysical Research Letters 35(16) / researchgate.net ]

Magnetic effect on CO 2 solubility in seawater: A possible link between geomagnetic field variations and climate

(August 2008)

Correlations between geomagnetic-field and climate parameters have been suggested repeatedly, but possible links are controversially discussed. Here we test if weak (Earth-strength) magnetic fields can affect climatically relevant properties of seawater. We found the solubility of air in seawater to be by 15% lower under reduced magneticfield (20 mT) compared to normal field conditions (50 mT). The magnetic-field effect on CO2 solubility is twice as large, from which we surmise that geomagnetic field variations modulate the carbon exchange between atmosphere and ocean. A 1% reduction in magnetic dipole moment may release up to ten times more CO2 from the surface ocean than is emitted by subaerial volcanism.

01.11.2019 - 06:33 [ Telegraph.co.uk ]

Sun’s protective ‚bubble‘ is shrinking

(18.10.2008)

The protective bubble around the sun that helps to shield the Earth from harmful interstellar radiation is shrinking and getting weaker, Nasa scientists have warned.

18.10.2019 - 19:48 [ CNN ]

Is this how we’ll live on Mars?

„The climate crisis is — rightly — frightening a lot of people, and there is a tendency to think of Mars as a sort of escape hatch for humanity, a planet B, which is very dangerous and problematic,“ said Watson.

03.10.2019 - 18:59 [ Schenectady Gazette / Google.com ]

Methane, Ammonia on Mars? Mariner 7 Sees Hint of Life

(8.August 1969)

Pimentel´s evidence was from an infrared spectrometer, designed to detect elements by measuring their radiation.

03.10.2019 - 18:55 [ University of Washington ]

Is there methane on Mars?

(2011)

The first discovery of methane on Mars was announced in 1969 at a press conference by the Mariner 7 Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) team just two days after the flyby.

25.09.2019 - 19:51 [ Donna Laframboise / nofrakkingconsensus.com ]

3 Things Scientists Need to Know About the IPCC

(01.09.2015)

The bottom line is that this is a week of naked political horse trading that goes on behind closed doors. Journalists are not allowed to witness what takes place, which is why we’ve been looking at official IPCC photos here. This is what they permit us to see.

It’s only after the diplomats have haggled over this Summary – paragraph by paragraph – that the final version gets officially released at a press conference.

The world is then told that science has spoken. But what’s just happened has nothing to do with science. Scientific truth is not determined in the dead of night by UN-level negotiations. On what planet would such an approach make scientific sense?

But the bad news doesn’t stop there. There’s actually a step in the IPCC process in which the original, lengthy report gets amended so that it conforms to the politically-negotiated Summary. I am not making this up.

25.09.2019 - 19:42 [ Geophysical Research Letters 35(16) / researchgate.net ]

Magnetic effect on CO 2 solubility in seawater: A possible link between geomagnetic field variations and climate

(August 2008)

Correlations between geomagnetic-field and climate parameters have been suggested repeatedly, but possible links are controversially discussed. Here we test if weak (Earth-strength) magnetic fields can affect climatically relevant properties of seawater. We found the solubility of air in seawater to be by 15% lower under reduced magneticfield (20 mT) compared to normal field conditions (50 mT). The magnetic-field effect on CO2 solubility is twice as large, from which we surmise that geomagnetic field variations modulate the carbon exchange between atmosphere and ocean. A 1% reduction in magnetic dipole moment may release up to ten times more CO2 from the surface ocean than is emitted by subaerial volcanism.

25.09.2019 - 19:31 [ Forbes.com ]

Is Earth’s Magnetic Shield Eroding?

(29.3.2018)

The strength of Earth’s main magnetic field is currently about 29.5 microteslas, down 5 microteslas, or 14 percent from its strength three centuries ago.

We know this. There is no question of this.

25.09.2019 - 19:23 [ Phys.org ]

Strong planetary magnetic fields like Earth’s may protect oceans from stellar storms

(14.03.2019)

„Magnetic fields appear to play an essential role in making planets habitable, so I wanted to find out how Earth’s magnetic field compared to those of other potentially habitable planets,“ she said.

Ms McIntyre said Earth’s strong magnetic field had probably played an important role in protecting the atmosphere from the solar wind and keeping the planet wet and habitable.

„Venus and Mars have negligible magnetic fields and do not support life, while Earth’s magnetic field is relatively strong and does,“ she said.

25.09.2019 - 19:19 [ NASA ‏/ Twitter ]

Unlike Earth, Mars does not have a magnetic field to shield its atmosphere from solar wind:

(05.11.2015)

25.09.2019 - 19:12 [ NationalGeographic.com ]

Rewind the Red Planet: See the Surprising Ways Mars Has Changed in 3 Billion Years

(21.11.2016)

Mars today is a chilly desert. But ancient landscapes reveal a times when water may have flowed freely. Scroll to see how the red planet has evolved

25.09.2019 - 18:56 [ National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]

Why doesn’t Venus have a magnetic field ?

Current theories of the formation and evolution of the terrestrial planets do support an Earth scale magnetic dipole (magnetic field) on Venus for perhaps the first billion years or so after formation.

25.09.2019 - 18:47 [ European Planetary Science Congress / American Astronomical Society's Division for Planetary Sciences ]

A view to the possible habitability of ancient Venus over three billion years

(20.09.2019)

The long-term evolutionary history of Venus’ climate largely remains a mystery.

25.09.2019 - 18:38 [ Spiked ]

Save Greta: Forget saving the planet – we need to save Greta from the death cult of environmentalism.

With each nightmarish word, with each unhinged dystopian prediction of doom, her voice wobbled and her emotions span out of control. It was a public meltdown. And of course the politicians applauded it – perversely, they love nothing more than being told how awful they are by a petrified, disorientated girl.

Who did this to Greta? Who turned a bright and curious 16-year-old schoolgirl into a prophet of horror, into a young woman who admits to feeling terror and who believes the Earth is on fire?

23.09.2019 - 06:26 [ CNN ]

More than 90 heads of state are descending on New York City. Here’s what to watch for

Breaking with tradition, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres has told country leaders not to come to the podium Monday without „concrete and transformative plans“ to halt rising global temperatures, achieve carbon neutrality and cut carbon emissions by 45 percent. VIPs with proposals have been told they have just three minutes to speak.

How concrete the results of the summit will actually be is unclear. The UN doesn’t have a global climate army to roam the planet stopping pollution, so it’s up to the 193 nations of the UN to take action.

26.08.2019 - 22:46 [ CNN ]

When Neptune got its stunning close-up: The Voyager 2 flyby, 30 years later

They discovered that Neptune’s magnetic field was tipped on its side. They found a giant spot called the Great Dark Spot on the planet, similar to Jupiter’s Great Red Spot. But the event was passing, because it was no longer there when the Hubble Space Telescope looked four years later.

24.08.2019 - 12:01 [ Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists ]

The false promise of nuclear power in an age of climate change

There are now more than 450 nuclear reactors throughout the world. If nuclear power is embraced as a rescue technology, there would be many times that number, creating a worldwide chain of nuclear danger zones—a planetary system of potential self-annihilation. To be fearful of such a development is rational. What is irrational is to dismiss this concern, and to insist, after the experience of more than a half-century, that a “fourth generation” of nuclear power will change everything.

24.08.2019 - 11:16 [ Wikipedia ]

Human overpopulation

Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) is when there are too many people for the environment to sustain (with food, drinkable water, breathable air, etc.). In more scientific terms, there is overshoot when the ecological footprint of a human population in a geographical area exceeds that place’s carrying capacity, damaging the environment faster than nature can repair it, potentially leading to an ecological and societal collapse. Overpopulation could apply to the population of a specific region, or to world population as a whole.

24.08.2019 - 10:20 [ Haaretz ]

Fascists‘ Terrifying Solution to the Climate Crisis

At the same time, the combination of racist ideology and fear of environmental destruction is particularly volatile and dangerous, because it stirs primal fears that haunt many on our warming planet, especially young people in the West. It attaches itself to an array of conspiracy theories and philosophies drawing on social Darwinism. The result is that the climate emergency is taking on a harrowing interpretation.

14.08.2019 - 06:28 [ Spectator ]

In praise of the bands that said no to Greta Thunberg

Saying No to Greta and her establishment-backed moaning about the man-made cataclysm that will shortly devour humanity yada yada is the most rock’n’roll thing you can do right now.

11.08.2019 - 21:54 [ Observatoire de Paris ]

Centennial cycles of the solar activity and Earth rotation

(Oktober 2011)

The irregular and long-term variations of the Earth rotation are mainly caused by the displacements
of matter in different parts of the planet which excitation mechanism is the influence of the Sun and
solar activity cycles. The solar cycles can drive great number of geodynamical processes connected with the convections of the Earth fluids on the surface and inside the Earth. Many of climate and weather parameters are affected directly by the variations of the solar activity.

11.08.2019 - 21:38 [ Nils-Axel Mörner / suanet.ac.tz ]

Solar Wind, Earth’s Rotation and Changes in Terrestrial Climate

(08.03.2013)

Another effect of the interaction between the Solar Wind and the Earth’s magnetic field seems to be that it affects the Earth’s rate of rotation where Solar Minima lead to accelerations and Solar Maxima to decelerations (as discussed in previous papers; [2,5-10]). Several authors have noted a correlation between sunspot activity and Earth’s rotation [2,8-23] or Solar-planetary cycles and Earth’s rotation [10,24-32].

Golovkov [13] plotted Earth’s rate of rotation (spin rate) against sunspot numbers and found that high spin rates correlated with low sunspot numbers and low spin rates with high sunspot numbers. Mörner [2] plotted LOD against sunspot numbers for the period 1831–1995 and found a linear relationship where low LOD values (high spin rate) correlated with low sunspot numbers and high LOD values with high sunspot numbers. Consequently, the Earth’s rotation accelerates at low solar activity and decelerates at high solar activity.

The relations among solar activity, Solar Wind, variations in Earth’s atmospheric shielding capacity and variations in the Earth’s rate of rotation are expressed in Fig. 1

11.08.2019 - 21:32 [ Nils-Axel Mörner / core.ac.uk ]

Solar Wind, Earth’s Rotation and Changes in Terrestrial Climate

(2013)

Solar variability affects Earth climate. It is proposed that this forcing primarily goes via the interaction of the Solar Wind with the Earth’s magnetosphere, rather than via changes in irradiance, which is generally assumed. The cyclic variations in Solar Wind emission generate corresponding changes in the Earth’s rate of rotation (LOD), as recorded by correlations between sunspot numbers and LOD-variations. Variations in Earth’s rotation affect not only the atmospheric circulation but also the ocean circulation.

11.08.2019 - 15:25 [ Harvard.edu ]

Equatorial solar rotation and its relation to climatic changes

(29. September 1977)

During the years from 1965 to 1976, the magnitude of the solar rotation speed averaged annually showed a good inverse correlation with the annual relative sunspot numbers. It is suggested that this variation of the equatorial solar rotation speed may be responsible for the earth’s present unusual climatic conditions. A similarity concerning the low sunspot activity for 1976 and the year 1643, just before the beginning of the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715) with its very severe climatic conditions, is pointed out. It appears, therefore, likely that the present unusual climatic conditions will remain as long as the solar activity continues to decrease.

11.08.2019 - 14:14 [ National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]

The Space Station Crosses a Spotless Sun

(15.07.2019)

Transiting the Sun is not very unusual for the ISS, which orbits the Earth about every 90 minutes, but getting one’s timing and equipment just right for a great image is rare. Strangely, besides that fake spot, in this recent two-image composite, the Sun lacked any real sunspots. The featured picture combines two images — one capturing the space station transiting the Sun — and another taken consecutively capturing details of the Sun’s surface. Sunspots have been rare on the Sun since the dawn of the current Solar Minimum, a period of low solar activity. For reasons not yet fully understood, the number of sunspots occurring during both the previous and current solar minima have been unusually low.

11.08.2019 - 14:03 [ Global Warming Policy Forum (GWPF) ]

Solar Cycle 25: May Be The Smallest In Over 300 Years

(26.01.2012)

Livingston and Penn provided the first hard estimate of Solar Cycle 25 amplitude based on a physical model. That estimate is 7, which would make it the smallest solar cycle for over 300 years.

This is figure 2 from their paper:

Livingston and Penn have been tracking the decline in sunspot magnetic field, predicting that sunspots will disappear when the umbral magnetic field strength falls below 1,500 gauss, as per this figure from their 2010 paper:

11.08.2019 - 13:58 [ NationalGeographic.com ]

Sun Headed Into Hibernation, Solar Studies Predict: Sunspots may disappear altogether in next cycle.

(14.06.2011)

This time, however, the rush to the poles is more of a crawl, which means we could be headed toward a very weak solar maximum in 2013—and it may delay or even prevent the start of the next solar cycle.

Taken together, the three lines of evidence strongly hint that Solar Cycle 25 may be a bust, the scientists said today during a meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Las Cruces, New Mexico.

11.08.2019 - 13:45 [ National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]

Long Range Solar Forecast: Solar Cycle 25 peaking around 2022 could be one of the weakest in centuries.

(10.05.2006)

How do you observe a belt that plunges 200,000 km below the surface of the sun?

„We do it using sunspots,“ Hathaway explains. Sunspots are magnetic knots that bubble up from the base of the conveyor belt, eventually popping through the surface of the sun. Astronomers have long known that sunspots have a tendency to drift—from mid solar latitudes toward the sun’s equator. According to current thinking, this drift is caused by the motion of the conveyor belt. „By measuring the drift of sunspot groups,“ says Hathaway, „we indirectly measure the speed of the belt.“

11.08.2019 - 13:22 [ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA.gov) ]

Space Weather Impacts On Climate

All weather on Earth, from the surface of the planet out into space, begins with the Sun. Space weather and terrestrial weather (the weather we feel at the surface) are influenced by the small changes the Sun undergoes during its solar cycle.

(…)

The duration of solar minimum may also have an impact on Earth’s climate. During solar minimum there is a maximum in the amount of Cosmic rays, high energy particles whose source is outside our Solar system, reaching earth. There is a theory that cosmic rays can create nucleation sites in the atmosphere which seed cloud formation and create cloudier conditions. If this were true, then there would be a significant impact on climate, which would be modulated by the 11-year solar cycle.

11.08.2019 - 13:20 [ Donna Laframboise / nofrakkingconsensus.com ]

3 Things Scientists Need to Know About the IPCC

(01.09.2015)

So what’s going on here? How do we explain this outlandish, perverse process?

Well Rajendra Pachauri, who chaired the IPCC for 13 years, said that its “main customer” was something called the UNFCCC. Jean-Pascal van Ypersele is an IPCC official who’s working very hard to become its new chairman. This is slide #26 from a presentation he gave a few years ago: The IPCC, he says, is “eager to continue serving the UNFCCC process.” What does that mean?

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is an international treaty. If you’re the UN, and you’re trying to persuade nearly 200 different parties to act together, you need to start from somewhere. You need an established body of facts, a master document, a bible that everyone can use as a jumping-off point. IPCC reports, it turns out, serve that purpose.

In other words, the IPCC’s primary function is to enable a political instrument – a treaty between nation states. This is high octane politics.

11.08.2019 - 12:46 [ Quirin Schiermeier / Nature.com ]

Eat less meat: UN climate change report calls for change to human diet

(08.08.2019)

Efforts to curb greenhouse gas-emissions and the impacts of global warming will fall significantly short without drastic changes in global land use, agriculture and human diets, leading researchers warn in a high-level report commissioned by the United Nations.

The special report on climate and land by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) describes plant-based diets as a major opportunity for mitigating and adapting to climate change ― and includes a policy recommendation to reduce meat consumption.

13.07.2019 - 16:40 [ EOS.org ]

The Thermosphere Responds to a Weaker Than Normal Solar Cycle

The cooling near solar minimum is natural and specific to the thermosphere. The cooling thermosphere does not affect the troposphere, the layer of the atmosphere closest to Earth’s surface where people live. The temperatures we experience on the ground do not get colder because of this solar cycle. NASA and other climate researchers continue to see a warming trend in the troposphere. These two effects are ongoing but unrelated.

Nitric oxide and carbon dioxide play important roles in cooling the thermosphere.

26.06.2019 - 09:50 [ KBS.co.kr ]

US Lobby Group Criticizes S. Korea’s Nuclear-Phase Out Policy

(21.06.2019)

The head of a U.S. environmental lobby group that promotes nuclear power as an environmentally friendly source of energy has criticized the Moon Jae-in administration’s policy to lower South Korea’s dependence on nuclear energy.

Environmental Progress’ chief activist Michael Shellenberger sounded his disapproval at a talk session arranged by the main opposition Liberty Korea Party at the National Assembly on Friday.

05.06.2019 - 20:56 [ Geophysical Research Letters 35(16) / researchgate.net ]

Magnetic effect on CO 2 solubility in seawater: A possible link between geomagnetic field variations and climate

(August 2008)

Correlations between geomagnetic-field and climate parameters have been suggested repeatedly, but possible links are controversially discussed. Here we test if weak (Earth-strength) magnetic fields can affect climatically relevant properties of seawater. We found the solubility of air in seawater to be by 15% lower under reduced magneticfield (20 mT) compared to normal field conditions (50 mT). The magnetic-field effect on CO2 solubility is twice as large, from which we surmise that geomagnetic field variations modulate the carbon exchange between atmosphere and ocean. A 1% reduction in magnetic dipole moment may release up to ten times more CO2 from the surface ocean than is emitted by subaerial volcanism.

05.06.2019 - 20:29 [ University College London ]

Magnetic Rope observed for the first time between Saturn and the Sun

(06.07.2016)

The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since 2004, and after many years analyzing the data collected, Cassini has observed the first FTE at Saturn.

05.06.2019 - 20:27 [ ScienceMag.org ]

Magnetic Reconnection in the Near Venusian Magnetotail

(04.05.2012)

Observations with the Venus Express magnetometer and low-energy particle detector revealed magnetic field and plasma behavior in the near-Venus wake that is symptomatic of magnetic reconnection, a process that occurs in Earth’s magnetotail but is not expected in the magnetotail of a nonmagnetized planet such as Venus.

05.06.2019 - 20:13 [ National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]

Magnetic Portals Connect Earth to the Sun

(30.10.2008)

„It’s called a flux transfer event or ‚FTE,'“ says space physicist David Sibeck of the Goddard Space Flight Center. „Ten years ago I was pretty sure they didn’t exist, but now the evidence is incontrovertible.“

Indeed, today Sibeck is telling an international assembly of space physicists at the 2008 Plasma Workshop in Huntsville, Alabama, that FTEs are not just common, but possibly twice as common as anyone had ever imagined.

05.06.2019 - 20:00 [ Phys.org ]

Earth’s magnetic poles could start to flip. What happens then?

(07.12.2018)

‚The geomagnetic field has been decaying for the last 3,000 years,‘ said Dr. Nicolas Thouveny from the European Centre for Research and Teaching of Environmental Geosciences (CEREGE) in Aix-en-Provence, France. ‚If it continues to fall down at this rate, in less than one millennium we will be in a critical (period).‘

05.06.2019 - 19:41 [ Metro.co.uk ]

The sun has ‘reached solar minimum’ and its surface is ominously calm

But Nasa images have revealed that the face of our star is looking ominously calm right now, prompting claims it’s reached a stage of its cycle called the solar minimum.

During the minimum, there are significantly fewer sunspots and its magnetic field weakens, allowing cosmic rays from outside our solar system to rain down on Earth.

05.06.2019 - 19:28 [ MIT Technology Review i ]

Space weather affects your daily life. It’s time to start paying attention.

“Why can I reach halfway across the world some days, and I can’t get more than 50 miles away other days. Well, our magnetosphere is a living, breathing thing, and it’s driven by the sun.”

30.05.2019 - 16:24 [ scitecheuropa.eu ]

Solving a century-long mystery: the origin of galactic cosmic rays

(04.04.2019)

The word ‘astronomy’ means the direct observations of extra-terrestrial objects. This definition is relevant to photons, neutrinos, and gravitational waves, i.e. massless, neutral and stable particles. But for cosmic ray electrons, protons, and nuclei, the term ‘astronomy’ is used with a certain reservation. Because of the deflections of electrically charged particles in the chaotic interstellar and intergalactic magnetic fields, the information about their original directions pointing to the sites of their production is lost. Instead, on the Earth, we detect an (almost) isotropic flux of cosmic rays contributed by a huge number of galactic and extragalactic sources.

30.05.2019 - 16:11 [ arxiv.org ]

Hypothesis: Muon Radiation Dose and Marine Megafaunal Extinction at the end-Pliocene Supernova

(November 2018)

Considerable data and analysis support the detection of one or more supernovae (SNe) at a distance of about 50 pc, ∼2.6 million years ago. This is possibly related to the extinction event around that time and is a member of a series of explosions that formed the Local Bubble in the interstellar medium. We build on previous work, and propagate the muon flux from SN-initiated cosmic rays from the surface to the depths of the ocean. We find that the radiation dose from the muons will exceed the total present surface dose from all sources at depths up to 1 km and will persist for at least the lifetime of marine megafauna. It is reasonable to hypothesize that this increase in radiation load may have contributed to a newly documented marine megafaunal extinction at that time.

30.05.2019 - 15:55 [ New York Times ]

STUDY HINTS EXTINCTIONS STRIKE IN SET INTERVALS

(11. Dezember 1983)

At a conference on mass extinctions, held in August at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, Dr. Sepkoski said the timing of these events suggested that “there is indeed a statistically significant periodicity in the observed distribution of events of mass or accelerated extinction over the last 250 million years.“ Search for Answers

He confessed this “stumped“ him and Dr. Raup, saying: “We are aware of no documented process with a cycling time approximately 26 million years. But with that long a cycle, we suspect that the forcing agent will not be terrestrial but rather solar or galactic.“

30.05.2019 - 15:49 [ Harvard.edu ]

Cosmic-ray volleys from the Galactic Center and their recent impact on the earth environment

Authors: Laviolette, P. A.
Journal: Earth, Moon, and Planets (ISSN 0167-9295), vol. 37, March 1987, p. 241-286.

25.05.2019 - 16:27 [ European Parliament ]

COP21 and Agenda 2030: The challenges of complementarity

(26.11.2015)

The interaction of climate change and development has found full recognition in the Agenda 2030 programme adopted in September 2015.